Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas (1954)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision that reversed the Plessy decision. Brown v. Board negated the “separate but equal” doctrine, indicating that separation by race in public institutions, including schools, was a violation of equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Chattel Slavery
Literally, the owning of one human being by another as property.
De facto segregation
Separation by race in practice, application in daily life, even when it is prohibited by law.
De jure segregation
Separation by race sanctioned by law.
14th Ammendment (1868)
A post-Civil War amendment to the United States Constitution that contains the concepts of due process and equal protection under the law. This Amendment was critical to the outlawing of segregation and various aspects of discrimination.
Manifest Destiny
A uniquely American concept justifying United States expansion based on divine sanction. The territory that was the focus of manifest destiny was in the West and occupied by Indian and Latino peoples.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision that institutionalized the doctrine of “separate but equal” in public institutions.
Cultural degradation
The view that one’s own cultural group is inadequate or inferior; results in low self-esteem.
In our study, prejudice in action
Judging of another culture based on the values of your own; the inability to view other cultures from their point of view; an attitude that one’s own culture is superior.
Literally, prejudgment; a preset attitude, usually negative.
Belief in the inherent capabilities of individuals based on race; discrimination on the basis of race
Projecting one’s own weaknesses onto another person or group. Scapegoats are chosen based on tradition and their defenselessness. The Holocaust is an example.
Believe in the inherent capabilities of individuals based of gender; discrimination on the basis of gender
An overgeneralized image of or belief about a group of people based on conclusions derived through prejudiced information.
“The American Dilemma”
How can we as a nation find a way to respect the rights, viewpoints and values of individuals and diverse groups without dissolving into a nation with no identity?
E pluribus unum
One from many; one country from 13 colonies.
Cultural pride
Respect and admiration for one’s own cultural group or heritage.
Cultural relativism
The ability to put aside one’s own cultural viewpoints and to view other cultures from within their different perspectives.
The distinct accomplishments and traditions of a people, including intellectual attainments, aesthetics, values and history. Culture gives a people its identity.
Ethnic group
People within a larger society who are set apart by themselves or others, primarily on the basis of racial or cultural characteristics such as religion, language and tradition.
The degree to which one identifies with the characteristics of an ethnic group.
Minority group
A people who are mathematically fewer in number than the majority group in a particular area.
The culture of a minority group