Apostolic Succession
the unbroken line of succession beginning with the apostles and perpetuated through bishops, considered essential for orders and sacraments to be valid
Arius
taught that Christ was the son not consubstantial with God the Father, argued that if God made Jesus, Jesus could not be equal with him
Biblical Criticism
the use of the tools of historical and literary scholarship to analyze the biblical texts
Canon/canonical
the writings that “made the cut” and are commonly accepted as inspired writings, part of scripture; Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John
Docetism
a heresy that the humanity of Christ, his sufferings, and his death were apparent rather than real, he had a “phantom body”
Ekklesia
a congregation, ancient Greek for assembly
Form Criticism
the shape of the oral teachings based on phrases or themes
Gnostics/ Gnosticism
a religion/philosophical movement in the first and second centuries. The idea is that an elite group who were given special knowledge would be saved and saw a sharp distinction between the spiritual and things of the flesh and material.
Gospel of Thomas
discovered in Egypt in the 20th century
Heresy
opinion or doctrine of variance with the orthodox or accepted doctrine
High Christology
Christology is the study of Christ, emphasize Christ’s divinity, lay emphasis on miracles, Jesus’ union with the will of his father, and the Gospel account of John which has a high Christological approach
Low Christology
thinks of Jesus primarily, if not entirely, as human and more or less ignore His divinity. Their belief is that if one works really hard at it, one can be just like Jesus who was a prophet, high priest, the son of man, and a teacher
Gospel of John
audience had been separated from the Jewish mainstream by now, Jesus is “the word made flesh”. This Gospel is distinctive from the others, this one comes out of the tradition of the “school” of the beloved disciple
Incarnation
the act of manifesting in a bodily form, a bodily form assumed by a god
Iconoclasts/ Iconodules
a breaker or destroyer of images, a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc. as being error or superstition
Irenaeus of Lyons
wrote Against Heresies, his work attempted to recover the content of Gnostic teachings in the second century, provides the first explicit witnesses to a four-fold gospel canon
Gospel of Luke
was written to a mixed audience, strong gentile group. Portray Jesus as the universal savior
Gospel of Mark
written to a largely gentile audience, good news about Jesus
Gospel of Matthew
written to a largely Jewish-Christian audience, presents Jesus as the Messiah
Messianic Secret
Jesus’ command to his followers not to reveal to others that He is the Messiah, in certain passages of the New Testament, notably in Mark
Oral Tradition
begins during Jesus’ lifetime, passing on Jesus’ story by word of mouth
Orthodox
of or conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, ideology,etc.
Paschal Mystery
refers to the suffering , death, resurrection, and glorification of Jesus Christ; the passion. It is celebrated in the sacrament of the Eucharist; the center of the work the Father sent Jesus to do on earth
Paul
letters; audience is largely the various churches he founded. Jesus is the Christ, risen and glorified lord.
Polycarp of Symrna
second century bishop, regarded as a saint, died a martyr, regarded as one of three chief apostolic fathers; sole surviving work is Letters to the Philippians, it is first recorded by Irenaeus of Lyons
Q Source
a hypothetical written source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, serves as the common material for these that is not in Mark
Redaction Criticism
studies how the editor or author used his sources
Source Criticism
identifies the sources, especially literary, as revealed in the text itself
Synoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, and Luke; they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes exactly the same wording indicating literary interdependence
Textual Criticism
attempt to determine the original text
Vincent of Lerins
came up with Vincentian canon and the idea of Commonitory (rule to distinguish Catholic truth from heresy
Vincentian Canon
threefold test of Catholic orthodoxy; diffusion, endurance, and universality can help a Christian distinguish religious truth from error
Written Tradition
the actual written teachings of the church, replace oral traditions when the people who know them are dying out