a structure for holding water, either manmade (dams, and lakes) or naturally occurring (lakes).
Three characteristics about Reservoirs
Reservoirs used for domestic supply range in size from 100 acre-feet to several million acre-feet.
Reservoirs may be open for recreational use either year round or certain times during the year.
Reservoirs may also prohibit recreational activity.
Treatment of water contained in a reservoir can range from_____ to______.
Reservoir nutrient levels vary and the type and quantity of life varies accordingly. These differences are classified as:
Eutrophic– having high nutrient levels and an abundance of aquatic and plant life.
Mesotrophic– having moderate levels of nutrients and moderate amounts of aquatic and plant life.
Oligotrophic-having very low levels of nutrients and low levels on aquatic and plant life.
In reservoirs with abundant life the life is concentrated in the _______or shallow water.
Several problems with water quality in reservoirs can be directly related to ________.
5 Problems associated with Algal Blooms include:
Taste and Odor problems
Shortened filter runs in complete treatment plants
Increases inpH ( which interferes with chlorination efficiency)
Dissolved oxygen depletion
A watershed is the area surrounding a reservoir or lake or stream that is used for a water source and is defined by its topography. Basically, the highest point above the supply from which surface runoff will occur and flow to the water supply.
What effects water quality within a watershed?
The type of activities that take place in the watershed will also greatly affect the quality of the water supply. Is the area wooded, has there been any wildfires, is the area agricultural, is it cropland or is it pasture land, is it industrialor residential.
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All of these activities can affect water quality.
How dose recreational activity effect reservoir quality?
The type and frequency of recreational activity can also affect the water quality of a reservoir.
Define – Thermal Stratification
Thermal Stratification occurs when the surface water becomes warmer and lighter than the colder more dense water below. These layers stratify because they resist the mixing action of wind turbulence.
Some reservoirs and lakes have one cycle of stratification and mixing, they are called_______
Those that undergo two cycles are called ______
Name 3 layers in stratification have different and their characteristics:
The upper layer that continues mixing is called the Epilimnion.
The middle layer is the zone of rapid temperature decrease with depth is called the Thermocline or Metalimnion.
The lowest layer of colder, denser water is called the Hypolimnion.
To combat the problems of stratification reservoirs implement destratification programs. These include :
Aeration – the process of passing air through water or water through air.
Reaeration- the introduction of air through forced air diffusers into the lower layers of the reservoir.
As the air rises through the water the dissolved oxygen is replenished into the water.
Describe Reservoir Intakes
Intake structures vary with each reservoir. They range from single intake structures set at a certain level to multiple level structures that can draw water from different depths to cope with stratification and thermoclines.
Intakes have some commonalities, these are
Intakes do have several things in common; they are all screened, and have multiple ports.
Coagulation is the process that clumps together fine particles into larger particles called floc.
Define – Flocculation
Flocculation is the process of gathering together of particles after coagulation into larger particle through gentle mixing.
Define – Polymers
Polymers come in either Anionic (having negatively charged ions) or cationic (having positively charged ions).
Define – Monomer
Monomer is a molecule of low molecular weight capable of reacting with identical or different monomers to form polymers.
Define – Coagulants
Coagulants are chemicals that cause fine particles to clump together to form floc.
Coagulants can be divided into TWO catagories either _____ ________ or ____________ ______.
Primary Coagulants or Coagulant Aides
Define – Alkalinity
is a measure of the capacity of a water’s ability to neutralize acids.
WATER OR WASTEWATER FLOWING INTO A TANK OR FACILITY
wATER OR WASTEWATER FLOWING OUT OF A TANK OR LEAVING A FACILITY
UNTREATED SEWAGE OR WATER IS REFERRED TO AS RAW.
Disease causing organisms are referred to as pathogenic orgamisms.
The taking in or soaking up of one substance into the body of another by molecular or chemical action.Tree roots absorb nutrients in the soil.
The gathering of gas, liquid, or dissolved substance on the surface or interface zone of another material.
A representative portion of a sample.Often an equally divided portion of a sample.
The temperature of the surroundings.
is the removal of hardness from water. This is not a required part of the water treatment process since hard water does not have any health consequences. However, hard water is problematic for a variety of reasons. Hard water makes soap precipitate out of water and form a scum, such as the ring which forms around bathtubs.
In addition to being unsightly, the reaction of hard water with soap results in excessive use of soaps and detergents. Hard water may also cause taste problems in drinking water and may shorten the life of fabrics washed in hard water. Finally, hard water harms many industrial processes, so industries often require much softer water than is usually required by the general public.
Ion exchange softening
also known as zeolite softening, passes water through a filter containing resin granules.In the filter, known as a softener, calcium and magnesium in the water are exchanged for sodium from the resin granules.
The resulting water has a hardness of 0 mg/L and must be mixed with hard water to prevent softness problems in the distributed water.
involves water being forced through a semi-permeable membrane. Calcium, magnesium, and dissolved solids are captured while the softened water is passed through the membrane
involves passing water between two plates with opposite electrical charges.The metals in the water are attracted to the plate with the negative charge while the non-metals are attracted to the plate with the positive charge.Both types of ions can be removed from the plates and discarded.
Electrodialysis is used on very hard water, with a hardness of more than 500 mg/L as calcium carbonate.
involves the evaporation of water. The evaporated water leaves behind all hardness compounds, softening the water.
Chlorine Demand, mg/L
Chlorine demand is the the difference in the amount of chlorine added to the water or wastewater and the amount of residual chlorine remaining in the water or wastewater after a given contact time.To find the chlorine demand you use the following equation.Chlorine Demand, mg/L = Chlorine Dosage, mg/L -Chlorine Residual, mg/L
Chlorine Dosage, mg/L
Chlorine dosage is the total amount of chlorine applied to the water or wastewater for disinfection.To find the dosage we add the demand and the residual. Chlorine Dosage, mg/L =Chlorine Demand, mg/L + Chlorine Residual, mg/L
Chlorine Residual, mg/L
Chlorine residual is the amonut of chlorine present in the water after the chlorine demand is met.
The concentration is expressed in terms of total chlorine residual which includes both combined or chemically bound chlorine residualsand free chlorine residuals.
What is a Pathogenic organism ?
A disease causing organism.
Chlorine comes in three forms, these are :
a)Gas= 100 percent chlorine , a greenish yellow gas, highly toxic, it comes in 100 or 150 pound cylinders, one ton cylinders, and Rail Tankers to 90 tons.b)Calcium Hypochlorite= Granular and tablet form 65 to 75 percent chlorine. c)Sodium Hypochlorite= Bleach, industrial strength varies by manufacturer, usually 10-12 percent chlorine.
How many parts per million of chlorine gas are detectable in the air?
It is detectable at .08 ppm in the air.
Chlorine gas in dangerous for long term exposure at what part per million in air?
It is dangerous for long term exposure a 5 ppm in air.
Chlorine gas is lethal at what part per million in the air?
It is lethal at 1000 ppm in air.
When changing a chlorine gas cylinder always use ______ and never ______.
When changing a gas cylinder for chlorine it is important to use proper safety equipment and to never work alone.
When you change a chlorine gas cylinder never reuse the _________.
When you change a chlorine gas cylinder never reuse the lead gasket. Always use a new gasket each time the valve yoke is loosened.
List the three classifications of chlorine repair kits and the type cylinder they are used for.
1)Repair kits are available for chlorine cylinders:a)“A” kit for 100 and 150 pound cylindersb)“B” kit for one ton cylindersc)“C” kit is for rail cars.
True or False, Chlorine cylinders contain only gas.
False, chlorine cylinders contain liquid chlorine as well as gas.
There are two valves on a one ton cylinder, they sholud be aligned ________ to the ground.
There are two valves on a one ton cylinder, they sholud be aligned perpendicular to the ground. ^ top valvev bottom vlave- ground
The top valve on a ton cylinder dispenses ____ while the valve on the bottom dipenses _____.
The top valve on a ton cylinder dispenses GAS while the valve on the bottom dipenses LIQUID.
Chlorine is a ________colored gas.
Chlorine is a greenish yellow colored gas.
Chlorine is ____ times _____ than air.
2.5 times heavier than air.
Chlorine liquid will expand into a gas at a rate of :
Chlorine liduid will expand at a rate of 460 to 1. This means that 1 cc of liquid will expand to 460 cc of gas.
Chlorine cylindersa are equipt with fusible plugs to keep the cylinder from rupturing if exposed to high heat.At what temperature will the plugs melt?
All cylinders are equipped with fusible plugs that will melt at 158oF to 165oF to prevent the tank from rupturing.
What chemical vapor is used to check for chlorine leaks?
To check for chlorine leaks ammonia is used, a small amount of ammonia vapor is squeezed near the valve and fittings, if a white cloud appears then there is a chlorine leak.
MSDS- MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETThese sheets are part of your “Right to Know” and should be kept on file with access for all workers.These sheet define the chemicals used in the plant and the dangers and safe handling associated with them.
LOCK OUT / TAG OUT
Lock Out / Tag Out refers to a system used to make sure that a piece of machinery or a motor or a chemical, water, or steam line, is isolated and denergized for repair, maintenace, or inspection.The system has very specific protocols involving who can lock out a piece of equipment and what needs to be done before the lock and or tag can be removed.
PPE – Personal Protective Equipment-This is the safety equipment provided to and or assigned to an individual.
This includes but is not limited to gloves, safety glasses, rain suits, boots, and hard hats.Remember that this equipment is your responsibility and you must ensure that it is kept in working order and that it is replaced when not in working order.