Mutually Agreed-Upon Written Agreement

Significant Delay in 1/more areas of development (25%)

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-a specialist determination if delay doesnt show up on assessment

-known physical/mental conditions

Tracking Services

-birth weight under 3.51bs


-born to chemically dependent mothers


-lead poisoning

3-5yr old eligibility

-significant delay (25%)

-autism, PDD, ED. neurological impairment, deafness, mr, physical disability…

-AND in need of specially designed instruction

Developmental Delay
child is less than the age of beginners and at least 3 years of age
Early Intervention
providing services to children ages birth0five
Reasons for Early Intervention

Enhance child development

Provide support and assistance to family

Maximize a child’s potential

What is special education?

Instruction that is specially designed to address the educational needs of children with disabilities.

*Addapting instruction

*Adapting delivery of instruction


Least Restrictive Environment

educated with non-disabled peers to the maximum extent possible

Natural Environment
1st appeared in the law IDEA 91 and again in subsequent reauthoirzations
Tool for teachers to evaluate students and gain information about the student
Must be given according to strict rules
comparing w/peers/chronologically (Intelligence Tests)
Criterion Referenced
compare to standards/criteria (PSSA)

The test measures what it says its going to test (error in measurement)–closer the test is to 1, the better, dependable

Test-retest, split-half, interscorer reliability

Test and test again should give same results
take results from beginning and end of test
Interscorer Reliability
2 scorers end with similar scores

How well the test measures what it is supposed to test, does disability from another area affect results?

-construct, content, criterion

Working across departments
Departments working together
OT, PT, special ed…lots of assessment, most common approach, use multiple sources of info before making a decision
a planned sequence of activities, including both content and process through which educators change childrens behavior, a vehicle for reaching goals and objectives identified in IFSPs and IEPs, ordered arrangement of individually selected learning experiences that respond
National Association for the Education of Young Children
Division of Early Childhood for the COuncil of Exceptional Children
Behavior Analysis
the ability to describe behavior objectivelly, analyze antecedent events and consequences, shape childrens behavior, use of cues and prompts
Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
abilities that the child is able to exhibit while interacting with an adult but cannot perform independently
Scaffolding (Bruner)
porividing gradual cues to assist a child through problem solving, degree/type of support necessary to assist a child toward independence
Importance of Early Relationships
-a preschooler who is emotionally supported achieves a strong and healthy sense of self and the ability to express and understand a wide range of emotional experiences and ideas
bond of affection that develops between an infant and his or her primary care giver
Erikson’s Stages of Psychological Development

1. Trust v. Mistrust

2. Autonomy v. Shame

3. Initiative v. Guilt


free and appropriate public education
Play (3 stages) by Piaget

1. Practice Play-sensorimotor

2. Symbolic Play-preoperational

3. Games w/rules (5yrs)-concrete operational

Natural Consequences
Occur when an adult does not interfere at all and a child learns from what naturally happens
Logical Consequences
developed by adults who find that natural consequences either are not readily available (harmful)
Why is play important?
social skills, sharing, taking turns, delayed gratification, teamwork, problem solving skills, learn about world around them, vocab building
Functional Behavior Assessment

-describe/define target behavior

-collect info to determine function

-categorize behavior

-analyze info-form hypothesis

-determine interventions

Types of Play
Social Play, object play, functional/representational play, early symbolic play, role play
Child Find
the process used to determine which children may have a disability
Progress Monitoring
on specific goals, give specific date instruction should be based on progress monitoring
mental health/mental retardation
Individualized Family Services Plan


evaluation report