?PET-Scan
Positron emission tomography scans. It is used while the person is performing a task. The subject is injected with a substance containing low amount of radiation, in which collects active neurons. It then uses a scanner to detect the radioactive substance, which researchers can tell which parts of the brain are actively engaged during various tasks.
fMRI
(Functional magnetic resonance imaging) an adaption of MRI used to detect changes in brain while it is an active state; unlike a PET scan, it doesn’t involve using radioactive materials.
fMRS
Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Progress monitoring
involves using CBM frequently, at least once a week. After five weeks those continuing to struggle on these CBM measures move into Tier 2.
curriculum based measurement (cbm)
a formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the curriculum to which students are exposed; usually involves giving students a small sample of items from the curriculum to which students are exposed, usually involves giving students a sample of items from the curriculum in use in their schools; Some argue CBM is preferable to comparing students with national norms or using tests that don’t reflect the curriculum content learned by students.
Minimal Brain Injury
refers to individuals who show behavioral but not neurological signs of brain injury; they may exhibit behaviors like distractibility, hyperactivity similar to people with real brain injury, but their neurological examinations are indistinguishable. Right now there is lack of diagnostic utility.
IQ-Achievement Discrepancy
a comparison between scores on standardized intelligence and achievement tests. Sometimes these tests give a false sense of precision. They tempt school personnel to reduce to a single score the complex and important decision of identifying a learning disability.
PET-Scan
Positron emission tomography scans. It is used while the person is performing a task. The subject is injected with a substance containing low amount of radiation, in which collects active neurons. It then uses a scanner to detect the radioactive substance, which researchers can tell which parts of the brain are actively engaged during various tasks.
Error Analysis
is a way of pinpointing particular areas in which the student has difficulty. In reading this is usually referred to as miscue analysis. In math, a student may have difficulty understanding the place value and fail to regroup in addition (e.g. 27+14=33)
Standardized Achievement Assessment
students who are learning disabled because achievement deficits are the primary characteristic of these students. It is now being administered for another purpose: documenting student outcomes. In this era of high stakes testing and teacher accountability, it’s necessary for teachers to document students’ academic progress.
Familiality studies
a method of determining the degree to which a given condition is inherited; looks at the prevalence of the condition in relatives of the person with the condition.
Heritability studies
comparing the prevalence of learning disabilities in identical vs. fraternal twins.
Decoding
ability to convert print to spoken language, and is largely dependent on phonological awareness and phonemic awareness.
Phonological awareness
the understanding that speech consists of small units of sounds, such as words, syllables and phonemes.
Reading fluency
refers to the ability to read effortlessly and smoothly
Reading comprehension
refers to the ability to gain meaning from what one has read.
Syntax
the way words are joined together to structure meaningful sentences Ex. grammar.
Semantics
the study of the meanings attached to words.
Phonology
the study of how individual sounds make up words.
Pragmatics
study with psycholinguistics of how people use language in social situations; emphasizes the fuctional use of language rather than mechanics.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity and or impulsivity is a diagnosis made by a psychiatrist or psychologist.
Meta- cognition
has at least three components: the ability to recognize task requirements, select implement appropriate strategies, and monitor and adjust performance.
Comprehension monitoring
refers to the abilities employed while one reads and attempts to comprehend textual material.
Nonverbal learning disabilities
a term used to refer to individuals who have a cluster of disabilities in social interaction, math, visual spatial tasks and tactual tasks.
Self-Instruction
makes students aware of the various stages of problem solving tasks while they are performing them and to bring behavior under verbal control. Requires the student to talk aloud and then to themselves as they solve problems.
Cognitive training
group of training procedures designed to change thoughts or thought patterns. It involves three components: 1) changing thought processes, 2) providing strategies for learning and 2) teaching self initiative. Two reasons why this is successful: 1) metacognitive problems, by providing them with specific strategies for solving problems and 2) motivational problems of passivity and learned helplessness by stressing self-initiative and involving them as much as possible in their own treatment.
Self monitoring
a type of cognitive training technique that requires individuals to keep track of their own behavior. Involves self evaluation and self recording. The student evaluates his or her behavior and then records whether the behavior occurred. Ex. student working on several math problems can check his or her answers and then record on a graph how many answers were correct. After several days, the student and teacher have an observable record of the student’s progress.
Content enhancement
way of making materials more salient or prominent. E.g. graphic organizers and mnemonics.
Direct instruction
focuses on the details of instructional progress. A method of teaching academics, especially reading and math; emphasizes drill and practice and immediate feedback; lessons are precisely sequenced, fast paced, and well rehearsed by the teacher.
Task-Analysis
the procedure of breaking down academic problems into their component parts so that teachers can teach the parts separately and then teach the students to put the parts together in order to demonstrate the larger skill.
Classwide Peer Tutoring
an instructional procedure in which all students in the class are involved in tutoring and being tutored by classmates on specific skills directed by their teacher.
Informal Reading Inventory
A means of determining and recording a child’s reading skills by observing his behavior in a reading situation the teacher has devised for the purpose.
Authentic Assessment
a method that evaluates a student’s critical thinking and problem solving ability in real life situations in which he or she may work with or receive help from peers, teachers, parents or supervisors.
Portfolios
a collection of samples of a student’s work done over time; a type of authentic assessment.
Preacademic Skills
Behaviors that are needed before formal academic instruction can begin (e.g. ability to identify letters, numbers, shapes and colors)
Formative Assessment
measurement procedures sued to monitor a student’s progress; they are used to compare how an individual performs in light of his or her abilities, in contrast to standardized tests, which are primarily used to compare an individual’s performance to that of other students.
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)
is a measure of individual achievement skills for the population targeting a wide age-range of people (children, adolescents, college students, and adults, age 4 through 85).
?affective disorder
a disorder of mood or emotional tone characterized by depression or elation.
anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by anxiety, farefulness, and avoidance of ordinary activites because of anxiety or fear.
externalizing behaviors
acting out behavior on others. This includes aggressive or disruptive behavior that is directed towards others. Ex. Bullying classmates.
internalizing behaviors
acting in behavior; this involves mental or emotional conflicts, such as depression and anxiety.
co-morbidity
co-occurrence of two or more conditions in the same individual.
conduct disorder
is a psychiatric category marked by a pattern of repetitive behavior wherein the rights of others or social norms are violated.
schizophrenia
have a severe disorder of thinking. It is manifested by loss of contact with reality, distorted thought processes, and abnormal perceptions.
autism
one of five autistic spectrum disorders; characterized by extreme social withdrawal and impairment in communication; other common characteristics are stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences; usually evident before age 3; a pervasive developmental disability characterized bye extreme withdrawal, cognitive deficits, language disorders, self stimulation, and onset before the age of 30 months.
enuresis
wetting oneself .
encopresis
bowel incontinence; soiling oneself.
echolalia
the parroting repetition of words or phases either immediately after they are heard or later; often observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.
basal ganglia
A Set of structures within the brain that include the caudate, globus pallidus, and putamen, the first two being abnormal in people with ADHD; generally responsible for the coordination and control of movement.
cerebellum
an organ at the base of the brain responsible for coordination and movement; site of abnormal development in persons with ADHD.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals involved in sending messages between neurons in the brain.
Behavioral inhibition
the ability to stop an intended response, to stop an ongoing response, to guard an ongoing response from interruption, and to refrain from responding immediately; allows executive functions to occur; delay or impaired in those with ADHD.
Executive functions
the ability to regulate one’s behavior through working memory, inner speech, control of emotions and arousal levels, and analysis of problems and communication of problem solutions to others; delayed or impaired in people with ADHD.
Inner speech
an executive function; internal language used to regulate one’s behavior; delayed or impaired in people with ADHD.
adaptive skills
Skills needed to adapt to one’s living environment (e.g. communication, self care, home living, social skills, community use, self direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work); usually estimated by an adaptive behavior survey; one of two major components (the other is intellectual functioning) of the AAMR definition.
Contingency-based-self-management
educational techniques that involve having students keep track of their own behavior, for which they then receive consequences (e.g. reinforcement).
Psycho stimulants
medications that activate dopamine levels in the frontal and prefrontal areas of the brain that control behavioral inhibition and executive functions; used to treat persons with ADHD. Ex. (amphetamine, cocaine) mimic positive psychotic symptoms
Coaching
a technique whereby a friend or therapist offers encouragement and support for a person with ADHD.
?communication disorders
impairs the ability to transmit or receive ideas, facts, feelings and desires and may involve language or speech or both, including hearing, listening, reading or writing.
augmentative or alternative communication (AAC)
for people with disabilities involving the physical movements of speech may consist of alternatives to the speech sounds of oral language (picture boards, ASL, gestures, and electronic devices that produce speech; see the discussion of AAC in Ch.13)
speech disorders
are impairments in the production of oral language. They include disabilities in making speech sounds, producing speech with a normal flow and producing voice.
language disorders
include problems in comprehension and expression. Remember that language is governed by rules. The problems-rule violations may involve a lag in ability to understand and express ideas, putting linguistic skills behind an individual’s development in other areas, such as motor, cognitive or social development.
pragmatics
refers to the rules about using language for social purposes.
phonology
refers to the rules governing speech sounds- the particular sounds and how they are sequenced.
morphology
refers to the study within psycholinguistics (rules that govern alterations of the internal organization of words) such as adding suffixes and other grammatical inflections to make proper plurals, verb tenses and so on. Ex. How adding or deleting parts of words changes the meaning.
syntax
the way words are joined together to structure meaningful sentences; grammar
semantics
the study of the meanings attached to words and sentences.
primary language impairment
a language disorder that has no known cause.
secondary language impairment
a language disorder that is caused by another condition, such as intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy or traumatic brain injury.
language based reading
a reading problem that is based on a language problem. This disorder can’t be identified until the child begins learning to read and has problems.
stuttering
speech characterized by abnormal hesitations, prolongations, repetitions; may be accompanied by grimaces, gestures or other bodily movements indicative of a struggle to speak, anxiety, blocking of speech or avoidance of speech.
early expressive language delay EELD
significant lag in the development of expressive language that is apparent by age 2. Ex. The child doesn’t have a fifty word vocab or use two word utterances by age two. Half will catch up developmentally with their age peers, but the other half will not catch up and continue to have language problems throughout their school years.
prelinguistic communication
Communication through gestures and noises before the child has learned oral language. Ex. They may use gestures or vocal noises to request objects or actions from others, to protest, to request a social routine or to greet someone.
milieu teaching
is a naturalistic approach, in that it encourages designing interventions that are similar to the conversational interactions that parents and children ordinarily have.
phonological disorders
occur in children younger than nine years of age. They do not include the normally developing young child’s inability to say words correctly. The cause of the disorder is often unknown, but for some reason the child does not understand the rules for producing the sounds of his or her language.
articulation disorders
involve errors in producing sounds. The problem is not an underlying phonological problem, but a disorder, in which the individual omits, substitutes, distorts or adds speech sounds. Lisping for example involves substitution or distortion of the s sounds Ex. Thunthine or shunsine for sunshine.
Fluency disorders
normal speech is characterized by some interruptions of speech flow. This is also referred to dysfluencies in which hesitations, repetitions, and other disruptions of normal speech flow.
dysarthria
a condition in which brain damage causes impaired control of the muscles used in articulation.
apraxia
inability to plan and coordinate speech.
Decibels
Units of relative loudness of sounds. 0db designates the point at which people with normal hearing can just detect sounds. Lower decibel is hard of hearing while 90 or greater is considered deaf.
hard of hearing
CAN HEAR WIT HTHE USE OF A HEARING AID, HAS HEARING SUFFICIENT TO ENABLE SUCCESSFUL PROCESSING OF LINGUISTIC INFORMATION THROUGH AUDITION.
congenitally deaf
those who are born deaf can be caused by genetic factors, by injuries during fetal development, or by injuries occurring at birth.
Adventitiously deaf
those who acquire deafness at some time after birth. This occurs through illness or accident in an individual who was born with normal hearing.
Prelingual deafness
deafness that occurs before the development of spoken language, usually at birth.
Post-lingual deafness
deafness that occurs after the development of speech and language.
pure-tone audiometry
a test whereby tones of various intensities and frequencies are presented to determine a person’s hearing level.
speech audiometry
a technique to test a person’s detection and understanding of speech.
Conductive hearing impairment
refers to hearing impairment, usually mild, resulting from malfunctioning along the conductive pathway of the ear.
Sensorineural hearing impairment
involves problems in the inner ear, usually severe, resulting from malfunctioning of the inner ear.
Mixed hearing impairment
a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing impairments.
Cochlea
this small shaped organ contains he parts necessary to convert the mechanical action of the middle ear into an electrical signal in the inner ear that is transmitted to the brain.
External otitis
infection of the skin external auditory canal; also called swimmer’s ear. Tumors of this canal are another source of hearing impairment.
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear caused by viral or bacterial factors, among others. Most common in young children
Congenital cytomegalovirus – CMV
a herpes virus deserves special attention because it’s the most frequent viral cause of deafness in newborns. This can result in a variety of conditions, such as intellectual disabilities, visual impairment, and especially hearing impairment.
Deaf culture
is a term applied to the social movement that holds deafness to be a difference in human experience rather than a disability
cochlear implantation
a surgical procedure that allows people who are deaf to hear some environmental sounds; an external coil fitted on the skin by the ear picks up sound from a microphone worn by the person and transmits it to an internal coil implanted in the bone behind the ear, which carries it to an electrode implanted in the cochlea of the inner ear.
oralism-manualism debate
the controversy over whether the goal of instruction for students who are deaf should be to teach them to speak or to teach them to use sign language. Favors teaching people who are deaf to speak; mutualism advocates the use of some kind of manual communication.
Total communication approach
an approach for teaching students with hearing impairment that blends oral and manual techniques.
bicultural-bilingual approach
promotes ASL (American Sign Language) as a first language and instruction in the deaf culture.
auditory-verbal approach-
focuses exclusively on using audition to improve speech and language development. Stresses teaching the person to use his or her remaining hearing as much as possible; heavy emphasis on use of amplication; heavy emphasis on teaching speech.
auditory-oral approach
is similar to auditory-verbal approach, but it also stresses the use of visual cues, such as speech reading and cued speech.
Speech reading
Sometimes called lip-reading, involves teaching children to use visual info to understand what is being said to them. The goal is to teach students to attend a variety of stimuli in addition to specific movements of the lips. For example, proficient speech readers read contextual stimuli so they can anticipate certain types of messages in certain types of situations.
cued speech
a way of augmenting speech reading. The individual uses hand shapes to represent specific sounds while speaking.
signing English systems
used simultaneously with oral methods in the total communication approach to teaching students who are deaf; different from American Sign Language because they maintain the same word order as spoken in English.
Finger spelling
the representation of letters of the English alphabet using various finger positions on one hand.
text telephones – TT
sometimes called TTYS (teletypes) or TDDS (telecommunication devices for the deaf) a person can use a TT connected to a telephone to type a message to anyone who has a TT, and a special phone adaption allows someone without a TT to use the push buttons on his or her phone to type messages with someone with a TT.
Transliteration
The act or product of transliterating, or of representing letters or words in the characters of another alphabet or script
Ossicles
three tiny bones that consist of malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup), which are contained within an air filled space.
Oval window
the link between the middle and inner ears.
Vestibular mechanism
located in the upper portion of the inner ear, is responsible for the sense of balance. It consists of three soft, semicircular canals filled with a fluid; sensitive to head movement, acceleration, and other movements related to balance.
Conductive hearing impairment
refers to an interference with the transfer of sound along the conductive pathway of the middle or outer ear.
Otoacoustic emissions
low-intensity sounds produced by the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation; used to screen hearing problems in infants and very young children.
Hertz
has to do with the number of vibrations per unit of time of a sound wave; the pitch is higher with some vibrations, lower with fewer.
Audiometric zero
the zero decibel level is frequently called the zero hearing-threshold level. Otherwise called the lowest level at which people with normal hearing can hear.
Speech reception threshold
the decibel level at which a person can understand speech.
Play audiometry
using pure tones or speech, the examiner teaches the child to do various activities whenever he or she hears a signal.
Tympanometry
a rubber tipped use to measure the middle ear’s response to pressure and sound.
Evoked-response audiometry
measures changes in brain wave activity by using an electrophalograph (EEG).
CONNEXIN-26 gene
a gene, the mutation of which causes deafness; the leading cause of congenital deafness in children. Accounts for about 20% of childhood deafness.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV)
a herpes virus, deserves special mention because it’s the most frequent viral cause of deafness in newborns, can result in a variety of disabilities, especially hearing impairment.
Homophones
sounds that are different but that look the same with regard to movements of the face and lips.
VIDEO RELAY SERVICE (VRS)
enables people who are deaf to communicate with hearing people through a sign language interpreter serving as an intermediary.
frontal lobes
Two lobes located in the front of the brain; responsible for executive functions; site of abnormal development in people with ADHD.
ADHD-Rating-Scale-IV-
is a reliable and easy-to-administer instrument both for diagnosing ADHD in children and adolescents and for assessing treatment response.
Continuous performance test
a test measuring a person’s ability to sustain attention to rapidly presented stimuli; can help in the diagnosis of ADHD.
Strauss syndrome
– behaviors of distractibility, forced responsiveness to stimuli, and hyperactivity; based on the work of Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner with children with intellectual disabilities.