James
Founded the field of american psychology
Hall
Founded American Psychological association
Encouraged teachers to make detailed observations to study their students development
Dewey
considered father of progressive education movement
Thorndike
1st ed psych textbook
shift from the classroom to the lab
view proved to be to narrow
Piaget
4 stages of cognitive development
Freud
early childhood experiences were critical, especially for emotional/social and cognitive development
Bandura
Social cognitive theory- interations among behavior, environment, and personal characteristics
Vygotsky
Sociocultural theory- human activity takes part in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings
Mental structures and processes can be traced to interactions with others
ZPD- area between students current level and the level they could achieve with adult help
Bronfenbrenner
Microsystem- students imediate relationships
Mesosystem- family and teachers
Exosystem- social settings that affect the child
Macrosystem- Culture
Siegler
rules assessment- understanding, challenging, and challenging the rules that students use for thinking
Erikson
connects person development to the social environment (Psycho social)
8 life stages each involves a central crisis
Marcia
4 Identity Alternatives
Identify Diffusion- no conclusions about who they are or what they want to do
Identity foreclosure-do not explore options, commit to a life style
Moratorium-expolation with a delay in commitment to personal and occupational choices
Identity achievement- explore relistic options, has made choices and is committed to pursuing them
Kohlberg
Divided moral reasoning into 3 levels
Preconventional-judement based on personal needs
Conventional-judgment based on others approval
Postconventional-good is determined by social standard
Gardner
Multiple intelligences
Pavlov
Classical Conditioning- involuntary
Skinner
Operant Conditioning- we behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment
Maslow
Hierarchy of needs ranging from survival to higher levels for intellectual achievement and finally self actualization
Lower levels (Survival,safety,belonging, self-esteem)