-mental action of gaining knowledge -understanding through thought, experiences, and the senses.
-sum of the ways that people are both alike and different.

-includes race, gender, sexual orientation, language, culture, religion, mental and physical ability.

Social Cognition Theory
 Social, cognitive and behaviour factors play an important role in learning.

Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)
Specific and complete use of principles of operant conditioning to the development of abilities and self direction skills of learners.
relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
Operant Conditioning 
A form of learning in which the consequences (rewards or punishments) of behaviour are lead to changes in the probability that the behaviour will occur.  The consequences depend on the individual’s behaviour
Long-Term Memory
 holds large amounts of information for a long period of time in a relatively permanent fashion.
Network Theory
describes how information in the memory is organized and connected.

Zone of Proximal Development
range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from someone else.
changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session; adjusts amount of guidance to fit a student’s current performance level.
 Inductive Problem Solving
Drawing conclusions about all members of a category based on observations.
 Concrete Operational Stage
 Lasts from age 7-11. Children can reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets.    
 Preoperational Stage
Lasts from age 2-7. Children begin to represent the world with words and images.

More symbolic, increased use of language (scribbling) and pretend play.   

 Prefrontal Cortex
 Part of the brain located behind the forehead. Responsible for higher cognitive functions like planning, distinguishing right from wrong, determining what is socially appropriate behavior, decision-making, and producing insights.
gathering of accurate information related to students’ knowledge and understanding of important concepts.
 the process of making judgments based in part on assessment data.

 Criterion Reference Assessment
A grading system based on comparison of the student to predetermined standards.
 Portfolio Assessment
an organized collection of a student’s work that demonstrates the student’s skills and accomplishments.
people learn best when they actively construct knowledge and understanding in light of their own experiences.
Stimulus Response 
A person’s response to something new that is placed in their environemnt.