Purpose statement for literature review
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of full inclusion on the 8th grade science test scores of special education students
Sources of problems/topics for research
Deductions from theory
Personal experience
Replication/related literature
Deduction from theory
Ties research’s idea to existing knowledge and expands the particular field
Personal experience
Method of teaching, in place, but disagree. Child can’t read don’t know why-research it
Replication/related literature
Replication a study simply means doing a similar study with different components (reading about study)
Characteristics of good topics
researchable,significance,make a contribution,be suitable,new problems/further research,ethically appropriate
Role of the related lit in a research project
1. Knowledge of related lit enables me to define the landmark studies all the way back from first day to present.
2. Enables me to place questions where they fit and if they do fit.
3. limit questions, clarify/define concepts of the study.
4. Avoids replication of previous study.
5. Justifies significance of study.
6. Point out procedures that did not work or the test which was not the best.
7. Suggest additional approaches and procedures.
8. Familiar with previous research/this study found this and theirs found this.
Characteristics of usable hypothesis
Consistent with previous research,explanation,relationship,testable,stated simply. (CERTS)
Components of the research plan
Introduction,Method,Data Analysis,Time Schedule.
Two major types of sampling.
1. (Random) probability sampling.
2. nonrandom or no probability sampling.
(Random) Probability Sampling
1. simple Random sampling
2. Stratified
1. Simple Random Sampling
1. Draw out of a hat.
2. Table of Random Numbers
2. Stratified Random Sampling
1. A way to guarantee desired representation of subgroups within the same sample.
2. (High Medium Low)
3. Cluster Sampling
All together in one place, not individual.
4. Systematic Sampling
1. Kth name from a list.
2.100 wanted 25 every 4th name equals kth.
Nonrandom or no probability sampling
1. Convenience Sampling
2. Purposive sampling
3. Quota sampling
Convenience Sampling
Process of including whoever happens to be available at the time.
Purposive sampling
The process of selecting a sample that is “believed” to be representative of a given population.
Quota Sampling
The process of selecting a sample based on required, exact numbers or “quotas” of individuals or groups with varying characteristics.
Independent Variable
Effect on measurement (Dependent variable)
Dependent Variable
Measure on/of
Operational Measurement
Can be measured
Basic Research Studies
Basic research lays down the foundation for the applied science that follows. (Answers Who, What, Immediate Action)
Applied Research
Designed to solve practical problems of the modern world and to improve human conditions.
Qualitative Research Studies
it tells a story.
Quantitative Research Studies
Involves Numbers and measurements.
Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
Strive to help those with whom you work, and at the least act to avoid harming them. It’s more than just “Don’t do something you know will hurt others.” It entails taking precautions to minimize harm to others, and not putting our own well-being or comfort first, but instead that of the client.
Principle B: Fidelity & Responsibility
Establish relationships of trust and are aware of their professional/scientific responsibilities. Uphold standards of conduct, know their roles, consult with peers and show concern for ethical compliance an contribute time/efforts for little/no gains. When we make decisions, we have to follow through and deal with the consequences. Consider carefully the nature of the obligations you take on, and work to find ways to meet them.
Principle C: Integrity
This means taking the extra step to make very sure things are clear, offering services of the highest quality, and retaining responsibility for the outcomes of our work. That’s why we say that when the answer to an ethical dilemma begins with, “Well, technically…” the answer isn’t a good one. It’s part of out responsibility to go the extra step to make sure our clients understand what they are getting involved in, rather than relying on “the letter of the Ethics code.” We may even turn down some work or opportunities because it would not be helpful, or could exploit others.
Principle D: Justice
We are aware of our professional status in society, of how others look to us to answer questions and explain complex matters. While we might behave with the utmost integrity, we know our work can be misused by others, can be used for beneficial purposes selectively and used to deny help to some, or that even when we act with the best of intentions we might cause harm without meaning it. We strive to avoid this, to make sure our work is available to help everyone, and to be responsible for how our work is used
Principle E; Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
This principle includes that we “respect the dignity and worth of all people and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination.”