What is research?

Process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.


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In general it has 3 steps:  poses a question, collect data to answer the questions, and present an answer to the question

Why research?

1.  Adds to our knowledge

2.  Improves practice

3.  Informs policy debates

What are the steps in conducting research?

  • Id a problem that defines the goal of research
  • Make a prediction that, if confirmed, resolves the problem
  • Gather data relevant to this prediction
  • Analyze and interpret data to see if it supports the orediction and resolves the question

What is the first step in the process of research?

Identify a research problem:

  • Specify a problem
  • Justify it
  • Identify who the potential audience of the study is

What is the 2nd step in research?

Reviewing the Literature

  • Locating resources
  • Selecting resources
  • Summarizing resources

What is the 3rd step in research?

Specifying a Purpose for the Research

  • Identify the purpose statement
  • Narrow the purpose to research questions or hypotheses


What is the 4th step in research?
Collecting Data
Slecting individuals to study
Obtaining permissions
Gathering information
What is the 5th step in research?

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

  • Breaking down the data
  • Representing the data
  • Explaining the data

What is the 6th step in research?
Reporting and Evaluating Research
Deciding on audiences
Structuring the report
Writing the report sensitively
Quantitative Research

  • Emphasis on collecting and analyzing data in the form of numbers
  • Emphasis on collecting scores that measure distinct  attributes of individuals and organizations
  • Emphasis on the procedures of comparing groups or relating factors about individuals or groups in experiments, correlational studies and surveys

Qualitative Research

  • listen to the views of participants
  • ask general, open questions and collect data in places where people live and work
  • acknowledge that research has a role in advocating for change and bettering the life of individuals

Experimental Designs

  • intervention studies or group studies
  • offer intervention to one and withhold from another

Correlational Designs

  • measure the degree of relation between two or more variables using statistical procedure of correlational analysis
  • Study a single group

Survey Designs


  • Administer a survey or questionnaire
  • Survey or question a sample group to compare trends in a large population

Grounded Theory Designs

  • systematic qualitative procedures that researchers use to generate a general explanation that explains a process, action, or interaction among people
  • collecting interview data
  • developing themes
  • and then composing a visual model
  • “grounded” in the data from the participants

Ethnographic Designs

  • qualitative procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a cultural group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language
  • “from the perspective” of the group or person/s

Narrative Research Designs

  • qualitative procedures in which researchers describe the lives of individuals

Mixed Methods Designs

  • both qualitative and quantitative in nature


Action Research

  • Usually both quantitative and qualitative in nature
  • focuses more on procedures useful in addressing practical problems in school and the classrooms