Critical transformation in which individuals and groups engage in actions to reduce and ultimately eliminate inequity in society.

    Goal is to work toward EQUITY in society NOT EQUALITY!
  • Occurs on a continuum
  • Multiple levels individual, cultural, institutional similar to levels of oppression
  • Gradual and immediate results
  • Individual and collective (group) effort
  • Address a particular type of oppression or multiple typesi.e. just focus in sexism but also could focus on sexism and racism


 consciously or unconsciously.

One of the Five Faces of Oppression by Young (2010):Valuing and enforcing the dominant group’s values and characteristics.Some Characteristics:

    Discouraged/prevented from cultural practices
  • Change of appearance/behavior


Active component of prejudice or applying prejudice beliefs into action and denies people and social identity groups to equal participation in society.

  • Occurs on multiple levels: individual, cultural, institutional.
    Can be intentional and conscious as well as unconscious and unintentiona


A focus on appreciating social differences without an emphasis on power dynamics or differential access to resources and institutional support needed to live safe, satisfying, productive lives

Dominant Group

Also referred to as “Privileged Identity that is valued, considered to be superior, independent, or “normal” and historically has had advantaged to access resources and social power.


One of the Five Faces of Oppression by Young (2010):Systematically transferring resources (e.g. labor-value, etc.

) from one group to another.Some characteristics:

  • not compensated adequately for work
  • poor working conditions
  • no breaks, time off, vacation, etc.
  • no benefits


From Kirk & Okazawa-Rey:INDIVIDUAL/SELF IDENTITY: the collective aspect of the set of characteristics by which a thing(person) is definitely known or recognizable;GROUP IDENTITY: set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognizable as a member of a group;

Liberatory Consciousness

From RDSJ2 by Barbara Love. One identifies the following four elements toward a liberatory consciousness:

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    Awarenessto take notice of one’s behavior and attitudes as well as an attention to events and actions of others in person’s surroundings.
  • Analysisapplying critical thinking to what is now noticed as well as making decisions on how to interpret and respond to a situation.
  • Actionthe decision and follow-through of steps that need to be taken to address a given situation on an individual or collective level.

  • Accountability/Ally-shipestablishing a support network of individuals that will encourage and sustain one’s commitment to recognition, analysis and action.


One of the Five Faces of Oppression by Young (2010):Preventing of limiting people from participating in society, space, activity.Some Characteristics:

    physical separation
  • inequitable rules of behavior/action (marriage, voting)


A system of relationships among social groups in which “one social group, whether knowingly or unconsciously, exploits another social group for its own benefit” resulting in vast and deep injustices.”( Hardiman, Jackson & Griffin, 2010; Young, 2010)

Oppression (Five Faces)

Young (2010) outlined 5 characteristics of oppression:

  1. Marginalization
  2. Powerlessness
  3. Cultural Imperialism
  4. Violence

Oppression (Levels & Types)

Hardmin, Jackson & Griffin, 2010 outlined some characteristics of Oppression:LEVELS• Individual (interpersonal)• Shopping while Black• Not renting/selling home based on sexual orientation• Cultural/Societal (beliefs/practices/customs)• Cinderella• Santa Claus• Institutional (schools, government, church, etc.)• Gendered Sports Teams• Gender Identity as a Medical ConditionTYPES• Attitudes ( prejudice )• Behaviors (discrimination)INTENT•Conscious/Intentional• Immigrants & documentation in Arizona• Title IX• Unconscious/Unintentional• “Do you have a boyfriend or girlfriend?”• Columbus Day!

Personal Identity

characteristics about ourselves that are typically distinct to our individual life circumstances and/or self-determined (how we see ourselves).Relates to self-view and self-esteemExamples:

  • influenced by a wide range of factors including:
  • personality
  • family of origin
  • birth order
  • academic or social interests
  • values
  • self-esteem

One of the Five Faces of Oppression by Young (2010):Depriving of the ability to make decisions about one’s living or working conditions.Some characteristics:

  • no voice or influence in decisions
  • unsanitary conditions
  • lack of options/choice

holding an adverse opinion or belief about individuals or groups before having enough information or having just ground to make this conclusion.


An advantage, immunity, benefit, or access granted to an individual or group. Members of the dominant group receive these privileges unintentionally, unconsciously, and automatically.

  • “Flip side” of oppression.

  • not the same as “fortunate” or “lucky.”  (e.g., “I’m so privileged to not be disabled.”)  Privilege is systemic
  • Multifaceted.

      Society privileges MOST people for at least one social identity.  Society has oppressed almost EVERYONE for at least one social identity

Privilege (How to Recognize

Why Privilege is Hard to Recognize:

    Taking it personally–Remember it’s about the system in which you benefit fromEx: “I’m not a bad person! It’s not my fault that ____ happened. Why should I be responsible for what my ancestors did? 
  1. Believing the world is fair OR that oppression doesn’t existsEx:”We have a Black president, we have come so far since the Civil Rights Movements, etc.
  2. Ignorance/ Lack of informationEx: “I had no idea that [insert event] happened.

    ” “ I thought all [insert social identity] were [stereotype orprejudice].”

  3. Only comparing up, not down.Ex: “If women work harder, they will have the same opportunities as men.

    ” Rather than thinking about what barriers make women work harder.

  4. Only examining one’s oppressed identities.Ex: A white woman focusing on being targeted


TATUM: “what identities you notice about yourself,” awareness, consciousness.Saliency applicable to dominant and subordinate social identity groupshighly situationally contextual and generally heightened in a context where one feels to be an underrepresented numerical minority within a majority NOT be equated with “importance” of identity.Examples of Saliency:

  • Weight room filled with men when you are a woman
  • Gay Pride parade when heterosexual (or gay, lesbian, bisexual)
  • Christmas when Jewish or Muslim or not religious
  • Having to chosen between male or female bathroom if transgender
  • White person going to a black fraternity or sorority party
  • A person with a learning disability in class

association of blame on groups based on stereotypesEx: undocumented immigrants are taking all of the jobs from AmericansEx: Jewish persecution during the Holocaust-blamed for economic downfall in GermanyEx: gays and lesbians are a threat to (heterosexual) marriageEx: women entering the workforce is why children are having so many problems these days

Social Identity

Social Identity Group

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A focuses on understanding the social power dynamics that result in some social groups having privilege, status, access while other groups are disadvantaged, oppressed, denied access.Characteristics:

    Process and goal
  • Full & equal participation
  • Self-determination & interdependence
  • Dynamic
  • Change occurs on a variety of levels and formats

Social Justice Vs. Diversity

Diversity is.

•    appreciating social differences•    without analyses of power and privilege•    Importance of having accurate information about experiences & background•    Goal is appreciation and awareness Social Justice is…

•    Critical of structural dynamics of social differences•    Centers on impacts of power on social groups having  privilege, status, access denied to other groups.•    Analysis and exploration of social systems and historical legacies •    Goal is understanding and analysis that results in individual and social action to interrupt and/or eliminateoppression



Characteristics or a network of beliefs become assigned to social groups by others outside of the group.

At one time stereotypes may have been true but not this truth has been distorted, take out of context or exaggeratedPredominantly negative, however some could be consider positive in some contextse.g. Black men good at sportse.g. Asian people good in math and science

Stereotypes vs.


Stereotypes are: 
*rooted in ignorance, unconscious.
*the foundation of prejudice beliefs.

Prejudice is
*rooted in power, privilege, and control 
*often conscious
*used to justify or explain why dominant and target groups exist (one tool of oppression)

Target Group

Also referred to as “Subordinate Group”– A social group identity that is devalued, considered to be inferior, deviant or dependent, and historically has had disadvantaged access to resources and social power.


One of the Five Faces of Oppression by Young (2010):Acts of physical, emotional, verbal violence that threat or cause actual harm.Some Characteristics:

  • Symbols
  • Words or language
  • Weapons, war, attacks