social smile
a smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth
stranger wariness
an infant’s expression of concern-a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar person, or sadness-when a stranger appears
separation anxiety
an infant’s distress when a familiar caregiver leaves; most obvious between 9 and 12 months
a person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual, with body, mind and actions that are separate from those of other people.
trust vs. mistrust
Erikson’s first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the wold is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc) are met.
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson’s second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
social learning
learning by observing others
working model
In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences.
inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-control. Temperament is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child-rearing practices.
goodness of fit
a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community.
a theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture and that becomes apparent through analysis and comparison of those practices, although it is not usually apparent to the people within the culture.
proximal parenting
Parenting practices that involve close physical contact with the child’s entire body, such as cradling and swinging.
distal parenting
parents practices that focus on the intellect more than the body. such as talking with the baby and playing with an object.
a coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant.
still-face technique
an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.
According to Ainsworth, “an affectional tie” that an infant forms with the caregiver-a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
secure attachment
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.
insecure-avoidant attachment
a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return.
disorganized attachment
a type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return.
social referencing
seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else’s expressions and reactions.
family day care
Child care that occurs in another caregiver’s home. Usually the caregiver is paid at a lower rate than in center care, and usually one person cares for several children of various ages.
center day care
Child care in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid providers care for many children.