McClelland’s 3 Needs

Achievement:; personal responsisbility
moderate risk

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Power:; Influene


Affiliation:; acceptance and friendship

Goal Setting Theory

Match the goal –

high enough (challenge)

low enough (achievable


Specific goals increase performance and difficult goals when accepted result in higher performance than easy goals

Herzberg 2 Factor

Hygiene factors that keep people from being unhappy:

Supervision, company policay, working conditions, salary, peer relationships, security



Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsisbility, advancement, growth

a willingness to do something based on action’s ability to satisfy a need.
The potential abilty to influence behavior, to change the course of events, to oversome resistance, to get people to do things they would not otherwise do.
Types of Power

Legitimate:  Formal Management Position

Referent:  Charisma “I want to be like you”

Expert:  Specialized Knowledge

Coercive:  Punish

Reward – Bestow rewards

Path Goal Theory – House

Focuces on factors effecting ability for Leader’s Behavior to achieve outcomes


Factors include Envinronmental Contingincy Factors and Subordinate contingency factors

Difference Between Power and Authority

Power:; we are responsible for our actions and we share resonsibility for the actions of those we influence

Authority:; Willingness of subordinates to comply, suspension of subordinates criteria for making a decision, power relationship legitimized by norms of the group.

Authority Grid
A Dichotomous Chart showing the relationships between formal authority and informal authority.
Ways to Study Leadership






Iowa Studies (Behavior)

Authoritarian – full authority


Democratic – group involvement


Laissez Faire – no direction

Transformational Leader
Unite followers – change beliefs to promote higher levels of performance.; Commitment to organization, members form unified vision
Transactional Leader
Give things to followers in exchange for what leaders want
Theory x Leadership Theory
Authoritarian, repressive, tight control
Theory X Motivational Theory
People dislike work, little ambition
Theory Y Leadership Theory
Liberating, developmental, enabling, empowering, giving, responsibility
Thoery Y Motivational Theory

People are good and smart, underutilized, want responsibility


Trait Theory Strengths and Weaknesses

Not good for Training Leaders, but good for leaders training themselves


Strengths:; focus on leaders, 100 yrs practice, personal awareness and development

Weaknesses:; Overly simple, not useful for training, no one “set” universally

Trait Theories

Machiavelli – end justifies means

“Great Man” theory

Right Stuff (height, etc.)

Stogdill – no one set of leadership traits across professions

Kirkpatrick and Locke “Traits Matter”

Big 5

Stogdill traits







Self Confidence


Kirkpatrick and Locke Traits
Drive, Motivation, Integrity, Confidence, cognitive ability, task knowledge
Big Five
Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience
Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal
Organizational Realms – Mitchell and Spady

The conflict between Administrative and Teacher (They)


Administrative – enviornmental, facilitative, group achievement

Teacher:; transformative, individual achievement

Ohio State (Behavior Theory)

A dichotomous grid showing outcomes between low to high manager’s consideration (trust, respect, friendship, warmth) and low to high manager’s initiating structure (organizational patterns, communication, scheduling procedures)


Effected outcomes include performance, grievance and turnover

Time Management

  1. People First
  2. Eliminate inneffective office practices
  3. practice “management by wandering around”
  4. Know what to look for when MBWA
  5. Let others help you save time
  6. do demo lessons
  7. seek feedback

Senge’s Fifth Discipline

Systems (whole and parts relationships)


Personal Mastery (keeping tension between vision and reality


Mental Models – can limit and effect our conclusions


Shared Vision – future created together


Team (teacher) Learning – align not agree, encourage reflection.

Effective Staff Development

Relevant – clear classroom fit

Attractive – incentives, application

Duration – practice, evaluation


make them hunger for it.

A set of interrelated constructs that provide a systematic view of phenomena explaining the relations among variables and predicting probable outcomes
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid

A coordinate graph that plots leadership styles on two axis – concern for people, concern for production – quadrants include: Country Club (high people, low prod.)

Team Management (High Pe High Pro)

Authority Obedience (Low PE, High Pro) and Impoverished (low, low)

also Organizational (Wo)man – in the middle, doing just enough, getting by.

Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership

A bell curve requiring more relationship behavior depending on level of follower readiness in task behavior.

roles include

Delegating (able and willing follower)

Supporting/Participating (able and unwilling)

Coaching/Selling (Unable and Willing

and Structuring/Telling (Unable and Unwilling)



Esteem, Status

Social Affection

Safety, Security

Physiological Needs

(lower need must met before moving up)


Overlaps with Maslow, but believes people can satisfy needs in more than one area at a time;




(goes from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation)

Contingency Theory
Goals are achieved by matching situation to leader or leader’s style
Participative Leadership
Also called Shared Leadership – mentioned in Theory Y, House Path-Goal and Hersey Blanchard Situational Leadership

1.  There is no one right way.

2.  Everything is a judgement call.

3.  Do your homework.

Job Maturity


willing and able



Personal (the tension between vision and reality)

Shared – the future we create together

Emotional Intelligence

1.  Self-Awareness

2.  Self Responsibility (regulation and motivation)

3.  Social Competence (empathy and social skill)

Fundamental Attribution Error

We assume others are internally controlled (somebody else’s fault)


“she didn’t get her work done because she’s lazy”

Self-Serving Bias

We exaggerate our external controls

(I didn’t get my work done because of computer problems, traffic, etc.)

“I’m okay”

Emotional Intelligence

Manifested in attitudes:

Observe our emotional state, decide if it is an appropriate response for the circumstances and people involved.


I am the LAKE, I control the RIPPLES


Cognitive Dissonance

Occurs when there are inconsistencies between 2 or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s attitudes and behavior.


Reduce by:

stopping behavior

decided not importnat

changing attitude

seeking out sonsonant elements to outweigh disonant ones

Felt/Displayed Emotions

Felt:  actual feelings


Displayed:  required by organization for job.


(Emotional Labor)

Emotional Labor

expressing organizational desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.


“Welcome to Costco, I love you.”