the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work
refers to the activities of students in which they develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world

a way of knowing that includes the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development


often referred to as common patterns of thought
paradigm shift
a radical change in  common viewpoint that occur because scientists use experimentation and new technologies to better explain observed scientific phenomena 
the belief that knowledge is not passed on from the teacher to the student. Rather, it is constructed by an individual as he or she creates his or her own world view
not a specific pedagogy 
Lev Vygotsky’s theory of constructivism
includes the role of culture and society in mental development; he thought the behavior must be studied in a social and historical context, giving rise to the term sociohistorical
theorized that children do not simply reproduce what is said or shown to them;instead, they undergo socially mediated cognitive construction
Vygotsky’s cognitive development
a matter of an individual’s social interaction within the environment. The mechanism of social behavior and the mechanism of consciousness are the same. We know ourselves because of our interactions with others.;
psychological tools

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the culturally developed signs used in mental and social activities that help mediate our actions;


include things like: “various systems for counting; mnemonic techniques; algebraic symbol systems; works of art; writing; schemes, diagrams, maps, and technical drawings; all sorts of conventional signs, and so on”