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-behaviorism (focus on the observable and measurable aspects of human behavior)-construvtivisim-interactive-sociolinguistics-reading response-critical literacy**Todays instructional activities to represent a balance between teacher-centered and student centered theories
Effective teachers support children’s use of the four cueing systemts1. phonological(sound)2. syntactive (structural)3. semantic (meaning)4. pragmatic (social and culture)* 44 speech sounds
Effective teachers create a community of learners Characateristics of classroom communities: responsibility, opportunities, engagement, demonstration, risk taking, instrution, response choice, time, and assessment
Effective teachers adopt a balanced approach of literacy inistruction
Effective teachers scaffold children’s reading and writing experiences. 5 levesl of support: 1.
modeled 2.shared 3.interactive 4.guided 5.
Effective teachers organize literacy instrutction in four ways (of the 8)-basil reader programs-literature focus units-literature circles-reading and writing workshops
Effective teachers connect instructin and assessmentTeach-Assess cycle:1. preassess2. teach3. monitor4.
Effective teachers become parterners with parents
Running Records scores
Ind.-95% or higherInstr.- 90-94%Hard- 89% or below
Ability to hear, identify, and munipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
Process of Word Study
1. demonstrate2. Sort and Check3.
Step 1 of Word Study
Deomonstrate-introduce sort, use key words or pictures **make sure kids know what ill. and pictures are
Step 2 of Word Study
Sort and Check-individuaully or with a partner.
Step 3 or word study
Reflect-declare, compare, and contrast*look at what others did
Step 4 of word study
Extend-activities to complete at seats; in centers or at home: sorts, games, cut and pate, expand word study notebook, make word charts *practice what you tried to do
word play, word sort, are best ways to learn
Qualities of Best Practices in teaching reading
(14 steps)1. Getting Meaning from print2.
Hearing books is first step3. Beginning Reading Instruction4. Best Practice for Learning to Read5. Wide Array of Print6.
Choice7. Teachers8. Reading an Writing are Tools9. Low-Risk Environment10. Phonics11. Daily Oppotunites12. Writing13. Reading Assessment14.
What does research say about Phonics?
– systematic and explicit phonics insturtion is more efect than non-systmeatic or no phonices instruction-systematic and explicit programs*have a sequence of instrution*give student an opportunity to practice
ay use different systems example: teachers teach constants first then vowels
-know what they’re doing and why they are doing it.
Approaches for Phonics Instruction
1. Synthetic2. Analytic3. Analogy Base4. Phonics Through Spelling5.
convert leters or combinations to sounds and then the sounds to word. Synthetic – take words apart
learn to analyse letter-sound relationships to previously learned words.*putting sounds together
Phonics through spelling
learn to segment words into phonemes and ten make words
learn to sound out one syllable words; initial sound before vowel and rest of word
Systematic and Explicit Phonics
-improves word recognition and spelling-improves reading comprehension-effective for children from various social and economic levels-efictive for children who are at risk for developing furture reading provlems-most effective when introduced early-NOT an entire reading program**equip students with tools**phonics improves reading comprehension**SCS Social economic status