Influences on the Growth of public Schools – CMATCS
a. Immigrationi. The concentration of peopleb. Industrializationi. Apprenticeship > learn a skill from someone else c. Urbanizationi. Brings crime to city
Aims of the common school – CMATCS
The common school is an idea developed by the Whigs to benefit all citizens through educationb. Structurei. Prussia school system1. Separated by age2. “universal” > open to all kidsa. curriculum3. Free controlled and paid by local and state governmentsii. Common School Reform1.
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More political and organizational
Andrew Jackson – CMATCS
a. The common mani. Notion began with president Andrew Jackson, identified as a “commoner” because he was from the state of Tennessee. ii.
Wanted to remove government from economic affrays because the govt. 1. Changing the federal banka. Lassai fair business practices
The Wigg Party — CMATCS
i. A political party formed in opposition to Jackson and his supporters, but also attempted to reach and meet the needs of the commoners through the common schoolsii.
Horace Mann – CMATCS
a. Served as secretary to the Massachusetts State Board of Educationb. Powers limited to the collection and dissemination of information regarding educating in Mass.
c. Created county educational conventionsd. Distributed annual reportsiv. School discipline1. Mellow system that tried to instill morality rather then beat it into them
Mann’s appeals to different constituents – CMATCS
g. Mann’s Appeal to the wealthyi.
Resistance to overcome:1. They wanted their children to go to private schoolsii. Argument/Appeal1. Educated workers are more productive2. Reduce crime rateh.
Mann’s appeal to the working classi. Resistance to overcome:1. They wanted their children to work ii. Argument /Appeal1. Social advancement, they could climb the social ladderi. Mann’s views on property and taxationi.
Even though you own your land you are really “leasing” it. ii. An obligation to Use what you have and contribute to the common good1. Cultivate the land and use it for the best use
Irish – CMATCS
a. Came because of their potatoes famineb. Looked down upon because they were Catholicsc. Most Americans were protestant
Religion – CMATCS
Catholic vs. Protestant i. Catholics looked for state approval for their own school system
‘Feminization of Teaching’ – CMATCS
a. Lower cost b.
More nurturing of childrenc. Still ran by mend. High surplus
Michael Katz’s critique – CMATCS
The Irony of Early School reforma. Michael Katzi. They were used by the upper class to control the lower classb. The Beverly Votei. Voted down the high schoolc. Criticsi. Its much more complex than thatii. They voted on it iii.
People’s motivation for doing things could be much more complex
school Funding – CMATCS
a. Improved physical setting of schools through:i. Use of surveysii. Public encouragement for model districtsiii. Publication of school expenditures by town
African Americans -CMATCS
Racially, non-white students were not included in common school plans.b. Sarah Roberts vs. the City of Bostoni.
Walked pass several schools to go to her black schoolii. Early case of desegregationc. Plans weren’t made to include blacks
Abigail Adams – ITCOEW
i. Remember the ladies!ii. Context or Background:1. Daughter of a liberal , puritan minister: married a Harvard maniii.
Argument for Women’s rights:1. Wanted a high level of education for women2. Republican motherhood (Marriage & Motherhood) a. Educated so they could create the future citizensb. Women still should support their husbandsiv. Role and Outcome1.
Don’t forget the Ladies in the new constitution
Women’s “primary duty’ – ITCOEW
Republican Motherhood – ITCOEW
The concept related to women’s roles as mothers in the emerging United States before and after the American Revolution (c. 1760 to 1800). It centered around the belief that children should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, making them the perfect citizens of the new nation
Enlightenment Theories & Women – ITCOEW
a. Frankensteini. Men trying to create life without women involvedb. Lockei. Blank slatec.
Rossue i. Did not think of women as human beingsd. The rights of women slid away they could only vote for a period of time.
The impact of the Revolutionary War – ITCOEW
a. Role for the war > sewing, supported women, contributionb. Heightened the importance of womenc.
Constitution provided no additional rights to women than already existedd. Educated women was left to the states
Mary Wollstonecraft – ITCOEW
a. Mary Wollstonecrafti. “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”ii. Context or Background: 1.
England at the time of the French Revolutioniii. Argument for Women’s Rights:1. Women’s first duty was to themselves2. Women should be educated as rational creatures3. Woman’s success directly correlated with education4.
Education would assist women in marriageiv. Role and outcome:1. Views seemed radical2. Didn’t become the main beliefs 3. Resistance to a Gendered Social Order
“A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” – ITCOEW
Resistance to a gender social orderIQ = Mental Age Chronological age x 100
Carl Brigham – Non of the Above
Beliefsi. Raciestii. Immigrants were less intelligentb.
Contributioni. SATii. Wrote a study of American Intelligenceiii.
Brigham’s views on race – Non of the Above
Raciest, believed that immigrants were less intelligent
Alfred Binet – Non of the Above
b. Contributions:i. First “Intelligence Test”1.
Commissioned by French Govt. to separate children into vocation vs. academic schooling2. Did not design test to measure ‘intelligence’
Henry Goddard – Non of the Above
Eugenics ii. Restricted immigrationb. Contributioni. Translated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English and Frenchii. Popularized the IQ Test around the United Statesiii. Coined the term moronTranslated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English
Henry Chauncey – Non of the Above
Beliefsi. Meritocracy > natural aptitude ii. b.
Contributionsi. Shaped the nation’s Standardized testing practicesii. Ran ETS
Influence of WWI -&- WWII – Non of the Above
Consolidation of peopleb. The Army Alpha and Beta Testi. Alpha : a written testii. Beta: pictorial test for those who were “incapable” c. Army Alpha test became the SATd. WWII built need for Testingi. GI Bill
Army Alpha & Army Beta tests – Non of the Above
The Army Alpha and Beta Testi. Alpha : a written testii. Beta: pictorial test for those who were “incapable”
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale – Non of the Above
IQ = Mental Age Chronological age x 100
Educational Testing Services – Non of the Above
ran by Chauncey
The SAT – Non of the Above
c. Army Alpha test became the SATThe point of the SAT was to extend the Alpha standard to what Brigham and the Board viewed as mainstream American culture.
The SAT was to be the cornerstone of a new American social order – the aristocracy of aptitude, the meritocracy
Meritocracy – Non of the Above
advancement is based off of individual capability and achievement
Plato’s myth – TMOM
b. Socrates new he was telling a lie
IQ testing – TMOM
III. Modern Biological Determinisma. IQ testingb. The Bell Curve
Biological Determinism – TMOM
a. Shared behavioral norms and the social and economic differences between human groupsi. Racesii.
Classesiii. Sexesb. Take differences and make them have a natural aspectc. Social economic Roles accurately reflect the innate construction of people
Cultural influences on science – TMOM
a. Socially embedded based on: i. Hunch (beliefs)ii.
Visioniii. Intuitionb. Cultural contest
Reification – TMOM
i. Convert abstract concepts get turned into entities , something that is tangible or simplisticii. Division & Distinctionsiii. Intelligence = Unitary Thing1.
Nut inside the head2. The brain
Ranking – TMOM
i. Complex variation can very simply put into a scaleii. Progressiii.
Assigning All individuals to their proper status in the single series
Goddard – TMOM
a. Social prejudice filters its way into scienceb. Took photos and modified them to make the people look deviant or retarded.
Deficit thinking – TOG
the notion hat students fail in school because such students and their families have internal defects, or deficits, that thwart the learning process.focus on the individual devoid of contextMotivation, Socialization, & Academic CompetenceLow-Level Vocational Education
Low- Level vocational education – TOG
Impact of IQ test results – TOG
Mexican American students in the Southwest were subject to frequent intelligence testing and resultant curricular ability grouping and tracking.
George Isidore SanchezTests: 50% of Mexican American Elementary School Students – Mentally Sub Average
Culture of poverty – TOG
Poor Create Their Own ProblemsCulturally Deprived Limited Educability
Segregation – TOG
Mexican Americans and others identified school desegregation as the most despicable form of discrimination practiced against Spanish-speaking childrenAfter the war, school desegregation continued to be viewed as the major factor impeding the educational, social, and economic mobility of the Mexican American population
Nation’s first successful desegregation court case, “it was isolated as a local event and had no precedent-setting ruling affecting either the State of California or other situations of school segregation in the Southwest”
(MAES) Report – TOG
Historical segregation of Mexican American students has persisted into the contemporary period. The percentage of Latinos enrolled in predominantly White schools dropped by 36 percent. MAES reported rates of 86 percent and 60 percent, respectively.
High school completion rates – TOG
23 percent of Mexican American students entered college, with only 5 percent finishing
Language exclusion – TOG
The MAES report on language suppression and cultural exclusion found that less than 7 percent of the schools in the southwestern U.S. offered bilingual education.Although bilingual education has contributed much to the improvement of schooling for limited-English-proficient (LEP) For decades, most Mexican American students whose mother tongue was Spanish and who were not proficient in English have faced the sink-or-swim pedagogical practice of English-only instruction. Only a small portion of students actually have access to bilingual education, and its very existence is currently in jeopardy