Progressive Educationa. Different positions progressive reformers took
Liberal –social justice John Dewey & Ella Flag YoungConservative– Social order, Elliot & CubberlyPro
Progressive Educationb. Economic reform in the progressive era
Problem: Monopolies, or TrustSolution: Roosevelt and WIlson breaking up the trust, organizes labor, trade union activity
Progressive Educationc. Changes progressive educators introduced into public schools
8-4 school day, high school organization, organization based on school testing, extracurricular activities
Progressive Educationd. Difference between administrative progressives & pedagogical progressives
administrative: administration, tracking, vocational educationPedagogical: teachers, sharing authority with teachers, democratic socail reform
Progressive Educatione.

Committee of Ten

administrative progressive; Elliot
Progressive Educationf. Charles W. Eliot
administrative, Hardvard chairmen of the committee of tenthe purpose of secondary education was the same for all studentsdiscipline their minds for what activity was to followpioneer/toward elective system into high shchools
Progressive Educationg. Curricular Differentiation
Administrative progressives, standardized test, traking, sorting students, economic goals
Progressive Educationh. Ellwood Cubberley
Administrative; former school superintendent, negativism toward immigration on the part of administration progressives, school surveys, remaining gap
Progressive Educationi. John Dewey
pedagogical; education is a social process, education is growth education is life
Progressive Educationj.

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Ella Flagg Young

pedagogical, can’t separate the life of the teacher and student
John Deweya. How John Dewey views the nature of the child and the nature of learning
children are inherently curious individuality social
John Deweyb. What Dewey finds problematic with traditional schooling
drilling, selfish, egoistic, and competitive
John Deweyc. Is the process of education an “end result” –fixed or completed?
society is not fixed, we do not know how things will be in the future. experience –> contemplation–> logic/principles
John Deweyd.

Dewey’s response to Rousseau: the two fallacies

The thought that Human beings are as simplistic as a seed We are much more complexEnvironmental factors If you don’t have the correct factors to grow you will not grow.
John Deweye. Where does the initiative in growth come from?
the needs and powers of the individual
John Deweyf. What is the ultimate test of the value of what is learned?
use and application in carrying on and improving the common life of all
John Deweyg. Respect for individuality
i. All students are different from one another and will not learn in one standard, uniform way

Shortcomings of progressive education

a. Insensitive to problems some students haveb. Students lack basic skillsc. Some lack motivationd. Different learning styles
Gardnerb. Francis Parker on standards
i. Standards should arise from the student and the teacher as being imposed from the outside externallyii.

Standards shouldn’t come from the outside

Gardnerc. Historian Ella Lagemann on the fate of progressive education
Thorndike won and Dewey lost
Gardnerd. Positive aspects of progressive education (page 198)
the model is there
WEB Du Boisa. Du Bois’ argument
education of the African American Population
WEB Du Boisb. How does he support his position What a “proper education” is comprised of
a sympathetic connection between student and teacherknowledge of the history and background of black studentsproper facilities
WEB Du Boisd. What reasons does Du Bois give for the lack of support for African American schools (page 330)?
1) disparage of their own schools1) segragation will bring more evil back on the blacks2) lack of self determination or believing one can succeed
WEB Du Boisc. How does DuBois answer the question: “Does the Negro Need Separate Schools?”
yes because the student an =d the tacher have to relate to one another and that they should be socially equal black children cannot get the educaiton that they desrerve in white or mixed schools
WEB Du Boise. Ethiopians Have No Negro Blood
anthropologist, erase the history of black folk
James D.

Andersona. The legacy of the Brown v. Board case

separate is inherently unequalindividual equality under the law
James D. Andersonc. How did Brown vs. Board of Education influence other struggles for equality?
i. Devastated the careers of black educators and administrators ii. Placed many black children in hostile environmentsiii.

Black students lost all their cultural symbols 1. Schools were lost or burnt downiv. Segregation reemerged through tracking and other activities.

v. Prince Edward County, VAvi. Maya Angelouvii. Unequal Educational Opportunities

James D. Andersond. Declaration of Independence
All men are created equal
James D. Andersone. Constitution – 1787

Equal representation in the house of representativesii. No mention of equal rights

James D. Andersonf. 14th Amendment
i. the Equal protection clauseii. due process1.

extended citizenship to African Americans2. gave them all the rights under citizenship

James D. Andersong.

Constitutional equality

a. The Civil Rights Act of 1875i. The supreme Court declared this law unconstitutional
James D.

Andersonh. Why was there no reference to equality for individuals in the Constitution of 1787?

James D. AndersonCharles Sumner
i. Congressman who Sought to give African Americans complete voting rights and substantial of equality
Stacy Lee
Stacy LeeThe Model Minority Sterotype

Problemi. The stereotype homogenizes the Asian American population, masking the diversity within Asian American communities due to social class, religion, language, ethnicity, migratory status, length of residence, and education

Stacy LeeVoluntary and involuntary Minorities
a. Voluntary Minorityi. Immigrants who voluntarily come to America to seek a better lifeii. View themselves as guest in the U.S.

and tolerate discrimination and will assimilateiii. Do well in schooliv. Asian- Americansb. Involuntary Minorityi. Immigrants who were incorporated into the U.S.

through slavery or conquest1. African Americans2. Mexicans 3. Native Americans 4. Hawaiians

Stacy LeeOgbu’s Framework
a. Voluntary Minorityi. Immigrants who voluntarily come to America to seek a better lifeii.

View themselves as guest in the U.S. and tolerate discrimination and will assimilateiii. Do well in schooliv. Asian- Americansb.

Involuntary Minorityi. Immigrants who were incorporated into the U.S. through slavery or conquest1. African Americans2. Mexicans 3. Native Americans 4. Hawaiians

Stacy LeeKoreans

Identification1. Korean, not Asian 2. Don’t want to identify with any other Asiansii. Values1. Their parents encourage them to keep their Korean identity2. School success needed for social mobilityiii. Challenges1. English/language skills2.

Not connected to other Asians3. Pressure from stereotype b. Asian Americans

Stacy LeeHigh Achievers

Identification1. Pan-Asian ethnic identityii. Values1. School2. Family iii. Challenges1. Fear they will not live up to the expectations2. Choose career carefully, language

Stacy LeeLow Acievers

Identification1. Identify themselves as Asiansii. Values1. Schooling was the key to a successful future2.

Same as High Achieversiii. Challenges1. Seeking helpa. Negatively impact their families2.

Teachers overlook their need for help

Stacy LeeNew Waivers
i. Identification1. Identified themselves as south east Asian refugees. From the working class and poor families2. PARTYii. Values1. Did not view school as the key to success2.

Get around the school rules and pass their classes without doing a lot of work3. Peer oriented 4. Casting off an Asian American stereotypeiii. Challenges1.

Life2. Don’t have a lot of ideas on how to do things or accomplish anything

Stacy LeeAsian Americans
i. Identification1. Asian American2. Believed all Asians shaped common experiences in the U.

S.ii. Values1. Viewed education more as a tool to combat racisma. Challenging racismiii. Challenges1.


Stacy LeeLee’s critique of Ogbu’s framework
a. fails to explain why Asian do not perform as well in their respective countries of origin as they do in the U.S.b. treats voluntary minorities as a homogeneous groupsc.

fails to explain poor achievement among Asian Americans