Goals 2000
All children will start school ready to learn.Graduation rate will be 90%US will be first in the world in Math and ScienceStudents will leave grades 4,8, and 12 demonstrating competency in core areasEvery adult american will be literateEvery school in american will be free from drugs, violence, and firearmsEvery school will promote partnerships to increase community involvementTeachers will have access to programs to improve professional skills
Hawthorne Studies

The group norm established the level of output for workers.2. Workers who produced too much were disciplined by the group.3. Rate busters were physically threatened by the group4. Increases in productivity were related to group dynamics and effective management.5.

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Emplyer demands and physical environment had no affect on productivity.

Senge’s Systems Theory
A way of viewing schools as learning organizations.Inputs – the school district’s environment provides it with personnel, finance, and theoryTransformation – the school converts the input from the external environment to outputOutput – include student achievement, teacher performance etc.
Chain of Command
Staff positions have less authority and typically don’t have decision making authority. (Not in direct line) don’t have anyone underneath them. Resolve problems on lowest level possible. Chain of command – vertical, division of labor – horizontal
Organizational Structure
Centralization – when the Central Office retains the authority and depends on subordinates to implement decisionsDecentralization – Authority and responsibility are delegated to subordinates to make decisions.

Building level staff are empowered and influence overall operation .

MacGregor’s Theory X and Y
Theory X – work is distasteful, unmotivated, prefer to be directed, and coerced to achieve objectives.Theory Y – work is play, motivated, seek responsibility, don’t need to be supervised closely.

Argyris Maturity and Immaturity Theory
Immaturity – passive, dependent, shallow interests, short-term, subordinate, lack of self-awarenessMaturity – active, independent, many ways of behaving, long-term, superordinate, self-aware
Likert Systems 1-4 Theory
System 1 – authoritarian, bureaucratic, downward decision and communication, low trust and productivitySystem 2 – no group discussions, decision making at the top, low trust, not as resistant as system 1System 3 – both downward and upward communication, decision making on lower levels, high producitivity, high moraleSystem 4 – complete participation, upward and downward communication, trust and confidence
Getzels-Guba Model
Nomothetic – institution, role, role expectations; normative part of social systemIdiographic – individual, personality, need dispositions; personal side of social system
Organizational Culture
shared philosophies, beliefs, feelings, expectations, attitudes, norms, and values that are characteristic of the organizationFormal culture – expectedInformal culture – actual
Organizational Climate
total environmental quality within an organizationOpen – energetic, lively, moving towards goals, leadership emerges from both leader and members, feeling of satisfactionClosed – high degree of apathy, not moving towards goals, low morale and stagnant
School Climate Assessment
OCDQ – measures open to closed climate, studies show focus on adults, not used to measure effect on student achievementCASE – measures data about perceptions, all stakeholders complete surveys, data may be useful in preparing school reportsCPI – measure humanistic to custodial; boss management versus lead management; quality in academics and athletics
Humanistic Schools
learning through cooperative interactionself-discipline is normdemocraticopen communicationstudents and teachers accept responsibility
Custodial Schools
rigid and highly controlledstudents perceived as irresponsible and undisciplinedbehavior controlled through sanctionsimpersonal and mistrustfuldownward communication 
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
Level 1 – Physiological needs; the basicsLevel 2 – Safety; freedom from fear of physical and psychological dangerLevel 3 – Love and Belonging Needs – need to belong and be acceptedLevel 4 – Esteem needs; self-esteem and recognition from othersLevel 5 – Self-actualization – maximize one’s potential
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
policies and administration – achievementsupervision – recognitionworking conditions – work itselfinterpersonal relations – responsibilitymoney, status, and security – advancementEXTENDED MASLOW’S HIERARCHY 
Participative Leadership
called collective leadership; group, shared, or teacher leadership focuses on the decision making process of the group
Managerial Leadership
focuses on the functions, tasks, and behaviors of the leader. Management of the day to day routines in an organzation.
Iowa Studies
authoritarian – no group input at all. Complete control by leadersdemocratic – complete group work between the subordinates and the leaderlaissez-faire – no control by leader at all. ChaosSubordinates preferred democratic.Democratic – long termAuthoritarian – short term
Ohio State Studies
initiating structure – focuses on organization performance goals, communicate standards, emphasis on deadlines, evaluate performance consideration – concern for the welfare of subordinates, listeners, treats all staff as equals, and frequently uses emplyee ideas and suggestions.

Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership styles
Three dimensions – Relationships oriented, Task oriented, and maturity level of followers.
Transformational Leaders
focuses on leaders who have had exceptional impact on their organization. This is rare in society. Motivate their subordinates to achieve more than expected. Get followers to transend their self-interest for the sake of the organization. Raise followers need levels to higher order needs, such as self-actualization.
Situational Leadership Styles
Directing Style – first year teachers Q1Coaching Style – non-tenured second and third year teachers Q2Supporting Style – supporting teachers when they come up with excellent ideas and helping them implement them Q3Delegating Style – deparmental chairs working on school improvement Q4