3 Central Components of Effective Teacher Communication(Rubin & Feezel 1986)
Knowledge, Motivation, Skill
TO DEMONSTRATE EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION FOR THE SETTING-Understand the curriculum-Strong grasp of subject matter and how it is assessed-Understand of how students learn subject matter-Awareness of influence of classroom and school setting-Understand principles behind communication behavior
*Inclination to use communication appropriately and effectively*K-4 teachers more likely to be higher in communication apprehension than those in higher grades
Communication apprehension
anxiety prior to teaching
Ability to Communicate -Carry out effective interpersonal relationships-Speak clearly concisely-Lead and interact in group environments-Listen with understanding-Empathy
Receiver Apprehension
Loop- Anxiety, Problem Listening, Ineffective Processing, Less Likely to Learn
What does a perceived inability to interpret information effectively lead to?
reduced listening effectiveness
What does a perceived inability to assimilate all the information lead to?
reduced processing
How do you make information easier to process?
Teacher Clarity and Teacher Immediacy
Types of Nonverbal Positive communication
Eye contact, gestures, movement around classroom, smiling, vocal variety, humor
Teacher Clarity- Structure of Presentation
Effectively stimulate the desired meaning of course content and processes
Teacher Clarity-Verbal/Non-Verbal Characteristics
Use appropriate verbal and non-verbal messages-Fluency-Reduced vagueness (unambiguous speech)-Pace-Appropriate emphasis-Enthusiasm
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
teacher expectations –> internalize –> student self-expectation –> performance/achievement
Stereo-type threat
Risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group
Measurement of how much students have learned
Assignment of numbers or a rating according to rule system for ranking purposes
Evaluation-making judgments about adequacy of student learning
Uses the rules to make decisions about the value/worth of a set of measures
Assessment of Students:Summative Evaluation
Provide account of match between student performance and teacher objectives
Assessment of Students:Formative Evaluation
-Monitor progress, feedback-To facilitate or form learning-Not to assign a grade
3 Types of Written Tests
Selected-Response TestsShort-Answer TestsEssay Tests
Selected-Response Tests
-Multiple-choice, true-false, matching items-Test foundational knowledge—basic facts and cognitive skills-Efficient but may lead to verbatim memorization
Short-Answer Tests
-Supply answer from memory (recall v. recognize)-Also measures foundational knowledge-Broad/in-depth assessment
Essay Tests
-General directive to discuss or relate ideas-Tests: recall, organization, clarity of communication, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation-Consistency of grading may be problematic (influenced by vocabulary, grammar and style)-Time consuming
Performance Tests
Use wide range of knowledge and skills over time to complete a task or solve a problem under “realistic” conditions
how competently students carry out various tasks
type of conditions
open ended and ill structured questions
Ways of Evaluating
Norm-referenced gradingCriterion-referenced grading
Norm-referenced grading
determine what percentage of students will receive which grades
Criterion-referenced grading
Determined by the extent student meets standard of achievement
Mastery Approach
All student can master objectives if given good quality instruction, time to learn, and motivated
Assessment Practices to Avoid
-Emphasis on averages-Using zeros indiscriminately-Providing insufficient instruction prior to testing-Teaching one thing, testing another-Using pop quizzes-Keeping the nature and content of test secret-Keeping criteria for assignments secret-Shifting criteria-Avoid confounding assessment of learning in subject-matter with effort and ability
Standardized Tests
1. Designed by people with specialized knowledge and training in test construction2. Every person who takes test responds to the same items under same conditions3.

The answers are evaluated according to the same scoring standards4. Scored relative to “norm” group (which is an accurate and representative sample)

-Consistency of results: stable over short periods of time-Assumptions: score is free of measurement error (anxiety, motivation, guesses, vaguely worded items)
Split-half reliability
Single tests, divide tests in two, create two scores—how do rankings change between two scores
Tests-retest reliability
Same tests to same people on two occasions—measure how rankings change between two time periods
Alternative-form reliability
Two “equivalent” forms of the tests to same people—how to rankings change between two time periods
How accurately test measures what it “claims” to measure
How well items on tests cover a body of knowledge and skills
How well tests scores predict later performance
How accurately a test measures a theoretical attribute
Interpreting Test Scores
Grade equivalent scores -Score 4.7: Same number of correct responses as a fourth grader in the 7th month of schoolPercentile Rank-Percentage of scores at or below a given point: Scoring better than 97 percent of studentsStandard Scores-Degree of deviation from the mean of a distribution *Z-score *T-score
No Child Left Behind
-Standards (content and achievement)-Testing (annual)-Adequate Yearly Progress (attain at least proficiency)
Pros of NCLB
-Goal clarityKnown responsibilities-Quality control-Improved professional development-Students may be more motivated
Cons of NCLB
-May weaken content and performance standards-Cut scores for proficiency (may be be moved for convenience)-States flexibility: lack of common accountability standards-Lack of providers/resources
How to be a Reflective Teacher
-Enjoy the classroom-Preparedness-Willing to work/Invest time-Development of skills-Sensitivity-Awareness of instructional techniques-Awareness of how children learn in classrooms-Understanding of subject matter(Most Important)
Daily Feedback: Signals that a change in strategy is needed
-Attentiveness-Facial expressions-Restlessness-Yawns-Sleeping -Disruptive behavior
Classroom Observation Schedules
Observational checklistsMeeting explicit, predetermined criteria
Audiotaped Lessons
-Multiple instances-Develop representative sample of teaching circumstances-Tape, analyze, implement new strategy
Videotaped Lessons
-Same benefits as audiotaped lessons-Additional opportunity to investigate behavioral patterns“Actions speak louder than words”
Reflective Lesson Plans
-Divide paper in half -Left = Lesson Plan; Right = Reflective Notes-Lesson plan: objectives, materials, time-Reflective notes: thoughts on worth of objectives, materials, etc-Changes to Lesson plan based on analysis of reflective notes
Guided Reflection Protocol
-What happened? Descriptive: who, what, when, where-Why did it happen? Identify events that produced incident-What might it mean? Possible interpretations/causes-What are the implications for practice? Implement new strategy
Reflective Journal
-Repository of instructional ideas and techniques-Record observations-Record reflections on teaching-Help identify cause(s) of problems-Help identify solutions
-Title page-Table of contents-Statement of educational philosophy (reasons for choosing teaching as a career)-A resume-Statement of teaching goals-Sample lesson plans (awareness of state standards)-Examples of learning activities -Samples of students’ work-Photographs and videotapes-Letters of recommendation-Teaching evaluations-Samples of college level work-Autobiography-How teaching has contributed to your growth as a person/teacher-Official documents (transcripts, teaching certificates, test scores)