Personal Characteristics- internal factors
Mental and Emotional Factors
Metacognitive knowledge
Self efficacy
Self efficacy
Beliefs about our ability to successfully carry out particular tasks
Emotional aspect, how much control we feel we have
Behavioral Patterns
Self Observation
Self Evaluation
Adjusting behavior to overcome or reduce perceptions of low-efficacy, anxiety, ineffective learning strategies, creating productive study environments
Environmental Factors
external factors outside of the individuals
Social and physical environment
Triadic Reciprocal Causation (3 Determinants)
Personal, Behavioral, Environmental
Self Control
Ability to control ones actions in the absence of external reinforcement/ punishment
Self Regulation
Consistent/appropriate application of self control to new situations
When and how we use control
Bandura’s argument
Self-efficacy is more influential than expected rewards or punishment or actor skills because its based on the belief that one can or cannot produce the required behavior to produce a particular outcome
Students with higher self-efficacy
use self-regulating skills to concentrate on the task
creating strategies to accomplish task
choose appropriate tacts
use time management
monitor performance
make behavioral adjustments to improve
antecedents of self-efficacy

Performance accomplishments

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verbal persuasion

emotional arousal

vicarious experience

Verbal persuasion
Verbally convincing an individual that they have the ability to perform successfully
Emotional arousal
Emotions that arise when we prepare to engage in a task
Vicarious experience
Observing the success and failure of individual with whom we identify… modeling.
Selection Process and self efficacy
the way individuals go about selecting goals and activities–> consider wide range of goals

the kinds of things you’re going to engage in,

people with higher self efficacy tend to engage in broader set of things

Cognitive process and self efficacy
high self efficacy means you use a higher-level thought processes
motivational process + self efficacy
less likely to give up on a task
feel like they’ll be able to do it, just takes effort

Tell children they worked hard is a good way increase self efficacy

affective process + self efficacy
going to like the experience

excitement, curiosity, eagerness to get started

Self Regulatory Cycle
Forethought -> Performance -> Self Reflection
Forethought Phase of Self Regulatory
Task Analysis: Planning-> setting goals, formulating strategies
Self Motivational Beliefs-> Self efficacy or self regulated learning, consequences of goal achievement, intrinsic interest in the task, learning oriented v. performance oriented goals
Limitations: younger children less likely to attend to teacher for long periods
Performance Phase of Self Regulatory
Self control: attention focusing, self-instruction, tactics
Self-observation: recording one’s behavior + attempting different behaviors
Limitations: limited ability to ignore external and internal distractions, less likely to perform the steps of a task more slowly and deliberately to avoid mistakes
Self Reflection Phase of Self Regulatory Cycle
Self-judgment- 1. evaluating behavior 2. causal attribution
Self-reaction: self satisfaction and adaptive inference, positive feeling associated with good job
Limitations: compare selves to peers as basis for judging capabilities, hard making appropriate attributions about their successor failure, limited skill in accurately assessing the level of their own ability
Self regulated learning
Thoughts feelings or actions that are purposefully generated and controlled by a student to maximize learning of knowledge and skills for a given task or set of conditions
Components of learning strategies
Metacognition (self awareness)
Analysis (awareness of learning task)
Monitoring of Progress
Levels of Modeling
Observation, emulation, self-control, self-regulation
Constructivist learning theory
creating meaning out of what you’ve done
takes place when people actively engage in a task
Facets of Constructivism*
Active creation of knowledge structures from personal experience
Knowledge can never be fully transferred to another person because of difference in personal experiences
Modification of knowledge structures comes from sharing of multiple persepectives
Cognitive constructivism
Focus on the cognitive processes that take place within the individual
Social constructivism
Meaningful learning occurs when people are taught how to use psychological tools of their culture
Conditions for constructivism
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Situated Learning
Multiple perspectives
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Modeling, providing hints, asking leading questions
Gradually removing support structures
Situated learning
Learning tasks in realistic (situational) contexts , more likely to be meaningful
Multiple perspectives
Problems are often multifaceted and complex
Constructivism in practice
Determine student’s current understanding,
realistic learning experiences
complex, meaningful, problem based learning activites
debate and discuss substantive issues
allow students to think for themselves
encourage use of high-level cognitive process
evaluation in multiple forms
continuous evaluation
types of Problems
Well Structured- clearly formulated, solved by recall or application
Ill Structured- More complex, few cues pointing toward solution
Issues- Like ill structured problems but added component: problem tends to divide people into opposing camps: emotional provocation
Step towards becoming good problem solvers
Recognize existence of problem, understand nature of the problem, compile relevant info, formulate and carry out a solution, evaluate the solution
Transfer of learning
Independent application of knowledge and problem-solving skills to similar but new situations
Positive transference
prior learning aids subsequent learning
Negative transference
Prior learning interferes with subsequent learning, tasks are similar but require different responses
Zero transfer
prior learning has no effect on new learning
Specific transfer
Specific similarities between two tasks
General transfer
Use of similar cognitive strategies
Near Transfer
Previously learned knowledge and skills used relatively soon on highly similar tasks
Far transfer
Previously learned knowledge and skills used much later on dissimilar tasks and under different conditions
Low-road transfer
Previously learned skill automatically applied to similar current task
High-road transfer
Previously learned skill transferred over long time periods to new situations that look different from original tasks
Instructional Objectives
Observable, measurable, student behavior, help achieve major educational goals or policies
Broad, major goal or policy in place at district, state, or national level
more specific, observable, measurable
cognitive domain
information and skills you want to get across
Cognitive Domain/Taxonomy
Knowledge (previous info/facts), comprehension (meaning making, implications), application, analysis(break down objects or ideas into simple subcomponents), synthesis (reorganizing and interpreting), evaluation(making judgements)
Affective Taxonomy
Receiving/attending(willingness to receive), responding, valuing(attitude regarding worth/value), organization, characterization by value or value complex(value system as a way of life)
Psychomotor taxonomy
Perception(sense organs to obtain cues to guide motor activity), set(ready to perform a particular action), guided response, mechanism(habitual performance), complex/overt response, adaptation, origination
Specific Objectivese
Describe what you want, how will you assess? , i dentify and name the behavioral act, conditions under which behavior is to occur, separate objective for each learning performance
General objectives
Examine what is to be learned relative to objectives
Create general objectives that describe behaviors to be exhibite
Under each objective, list 5 specific learning outcomes (action verbs)
Alignment of objectives and assessment
Objectives must match assessments
Which questions test mastery of basic factual knowledge
Multiple choice, short answer, true false
Which questions test comprehension, analysis, and synthesis
Essays: summarize, compare/contrast
Behavioral approach to teaching
Direct instruction/ explicit instruction
-focus on basic skills, teacher makes all decisions, keep students on task, positive classroom climate through positive reinforcement
Components of Direct Instruction
Structured, guided, and independent practice
Orientation in direct instruction
Overview of lesson
explain relevance
relate to previous material or life experience
inform students what they’ll need to do to learn material
describe expected level of performance
Presentation in direct instruction
Explaining, illustrating, demonstrating new material
Lesson in small, easy to learn steps
Structured, guided, and independent practice in direct instruction
Structure-> lots of teacher assistance
Guided-> STudent works alone, teacher circulates correcting and checking
Independent -> Practice alone at school and home
Cognitive approach to teaching: information-processing approach
Design lessons and teaching practices to capitalize on meaningful learning, make students aware of how they learn and how they can use knowledge to impove performances
Components of Information Processing
Communicate clear goals and objectives, use attention-getting devices, organization and meaningfulness, learnable amounts and realistic time periods, facilitate encoding of information into long term memory.
Cognitive approach to teaching: constructivist approach
Using existing knwledge, attitudes, and values as filters, people interpret current experience in a way that makes sense at the time

-element of active constuction, vaires over time

takes a long time to be a good teacher, must change as student’s experiences change

Components of Constructivism
Scaffolding instruction within Zone of Proximal Development
Learning through discovery
Multiple view points
relevant problems
self-directed learning
Difficulties with constructivism
Understand how different students think
completeness of student knowledge
student self-awareness of own knowledge
variety of methods to support learning through problem based activites
guidance in selecting projects
Fostering collaborative activities
Teachers require deep knowledge to be effective
Range of alternative assessments
Humanistic Approach to Teaching
Attention to role of noncognitive variables in learning, such as students’ needs, emotions, values and self-perceptions

Personally meaningful
Students understand themselves
Create supportive environment
Inherent desire to learn and fulfill potential

Components of Humanistic Approach
Defining the helping situation
Exploring the problem
Developing insight
Planning and decision making
Social approach to teaching
Cooperative goals structures are characterized by students working together to accomplish shared goals
Components of Social Approach
Group heterogeneity, group goals + positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, equal opportunity for success, team competition
What is motivation?
Selection, persistence, intensity, and direction of behavior
Willingness to expend effort to achieve a goal
Behavior view of motivation
Behaviors can be reinforced, students can be motivated by promising rewards
Limitations of behavior view of motivation
Extrinsic motivation only, change in behavior may be temporary, develop materialistic attitude toward learning, lessen intrinsic motivatioin
Extrinsic motivation
Learner does something to earn external rewards
Intrinsic motivation
Learner does something to experience an inherent satisfaction
Social cognitive view of motivation
Observe and imitate models, vicarious reinforcement
improve self-efficacy: learning goals, outcome expectations, attribution
Key component of Social Cognitive View of Motivation
Observation and imitation of a model
Performance-approach goals
Demonstrating to teachers and peers ones intellectual ability by outperforming others
performance avoidance goals
Reducing possibility of failure so as not to appear less capable
Outcome expectations of Social Cognitive View of Motivation
High self efficacy-> expect positive outcomes
Low self efficacy -> expect disappointing outcomes, use simpler learning skills, give up more quickly
Attribution (of success/failure )of Social Cognitive View of Motivation
High self efficacy -> credit failure to insufficient effort + success to ability/effort
Low self efficacy -> credit failure to low ability and success to luck/ease of task
Cognitive Development View of Motivation
Piaget: organization and equilibration-> modifying scheme
Desire for equilibration + mastery of environment -> increases motivation
Need of Achievement
Attribution Theory
Cognitive Development View of Motivation + High/Low need for achievement
High need for achievement: prefer moderately challenging tasks
Low need for achievement:prefer low/easy or very hard tasks (to save face, if its super hard no shame in failing)
Cognitive development view of motivation and attribution
Unsuccessful students attribute success to luck/easy tasks
*Unsuccessful students attribute failure to lack of ability
Personal Interests
Values of culture and ethnic group
Emotions aroused by subject/activity
Degree of competence attained in subject/activity
Degree to which subject/activity is seen as relevant to achieving goal
Level of prior knowledge
Perceived hold on topic that person already knows
Situational Interests
State of cognitive conflict or disequilibrium

Well-written reading material

Opportunity to work with others

Engaging in hands-on tasks

Observing influential models

Teacher use of novel stimuli

Teacher use of games and puzzles

Humanistic View of Motivation
Higher complex needs emerge as lower needs are fulfilled
deficiency needs: motivate to act when they’re unmet
Growth needs: constantly strive to satisfy
Choice between safety and growth
Implications of humanistic view of motivation
Implication 1: teachers should do everything possible to see that lower level needs are satisfied
2: teachers should attempt to enhance attractions and minimize dangers of growth
Self-concept and motivation Implication
Design Instructional programs that are aimed at improving BOTH academic self-concept and achievement
Management Styles
Authoritarian- rules to be blindly obeyed
Permissive- few controls, children make basic decisions
Authoritative- rules for which reasons are discussed, clear ways to meet expectations, rewards for meeting expectations, ceding of responsibility with increased self-regulation
Authoritative teachers
Want students to learn to regulate their own behavior
Explain rationale for classroom rules
Adjust the rules as students demonstrate ability for self-governance
Adopting these norms may lead to achievement of valued academic goals
Preventing problems in the classroom
Show students you are with it
Learn to cope with overlapping situations
Maintain smoothness and momentum in activities
Keep the class involved
Introduce variety and be enthusiastic
Be aware of ripple effect
Dealing with Problems
*Planned ignoring—extinguish inappropriate attention seeking by ignoring
*Signal—subtle signal (clear throat)
*Proximity and touch control—place yourself closer to the misbehaving student
*Interest boosting—pay additional attention to student when losing his interest
*Humor—gentle and benign rather than derisive, ironic, or sarcastic
*Helping over hurdles—some students do not understand what they are to do or lack ability to carry out assignment
*Program restructuring—recognize when lesson is failing and try something else
*Antiseptic bouncing—ask student to leave the room
*Physical restraint—protective, NOT punitive (younger children)
*Direct appeal—point out connection between conduct and consequence
*Criticism and encouragement—if necessary to criticize student, do so privately (avoid ridicule or humiliation)
*Defining limits—establishing rules AND enforcing them
*Post-situational follow-up—debriefing with individual or class to understand what the problem is/was
*Marginal use of interpretation—analysis of behavior while it is occurring rather than afterward