How a group perceives the world
-Shared beliefs
-Ways of understanding and evaluating the world
-Common ideas and experiences
-Pattern of accepted behaviors
Melting Pot vs. Pluralism

Melting Pot:

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Assimilate to mainstream

Pluralism: Accepting/embracing of differences

effects of social class on learning
-Graduation rates
-Health and living conditions
-Family environment
-Motivation—Need for achievement: Investment in doing well
Require high levels of emotional and instructional support
Suggestions for teaching in low SES classrooms
-Difference ? Deficit
-Groups often made up of subgroups
-Groups composed of unique individuals
Teacher Expectancy Effect
-Conscious/unconscious expectations based on race, SES, ethnicity, dress, speech patterns, test scores, etc
-Subtly communicate expectations
-Students eventually behave to fit the pattern
Effective Multicultural Teacher
-Clear objectives
-Communicate high expectations
-Monitor progress/feedback
-Years of experience
-Embed instruction in meaningful contexts (makes things relevant)
-Active learning: small groups/hand on activities
-High dedication
-Enhance self-esteem
-“Affinity” for diverse students
Transition Programs
– teach in student’s native language
– receive ESL instruction
Maintenance Programs
-Maintain or improve native language
-Eventual transition to English language instruction
Two-Way Bilingual (immersion, dual-language)
both groups learning both languages, helping each other
Between-Class Ability Grouping
-The use of standardized test of mental ability (IQ) or achievement tests to group children at similar levels of ability
-Little or no contact with students in other ability groupings
-little support
-affects instruction
-Increased flexibility in grouping and narrower in scope
-evidence inconclusive
Joplin Plan
Regrouping across grade level (groups cut across grades but share level of ability)
Within-Class Ability Grouping
-Division of a single-class into 2 or 3 groups (usually used only in reading and math)
-positive effects
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
-ensure appropriate resources
-teachers: referral, assessment, preparation of IEP, implementation and evaluation of IEP
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
-Statement of existing educational performance
-Annual goals: short & long term
-Identify educational resources and services
-Level of mainstreaming
-Dates and duration of service
-Method of evaluating progress
Mental Retardation
Significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
Disorder in psychological processes

Memory encoding and storage, perception;visual or auditory, attention, metacognition

type of learning disability

-Predominantly inattentive
-Hyperactive and impulsive
-Combination of all three
ADHD Treatment: Stimulant medication, School based psychological/educational program, Multi-modal program
Emotional Disturbances
-Inability to learn NOT related to intellectual, sensory, or health factors
-Difficulty with peer and teacher interpersonal relationships
-Inappropriate types of behaviors
-Pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
-Development of physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems
Accelerated Instruction
-compressed curriculum, extended school year, college courses
-Prevent boredom, promote positive attitudes toward learning
Gifted Classes and Schools
Mixed evidence for success: careful match b/w student and setting
Differentiated Instruction Type I (Gifted and Talented Education)
expose students to new topics/material not covered in general curriculum
Differentiated Instruction Type II (Gifted and Talented Education)
promote creativity, problem solving, valuing
Differentiated Instruction Type III (Gifted and Talented Education)
investigate and collect data about real topic or problem
Operant Conditioning
Voluntary responses are strengthened when they are reinforced and weakened when ignored or punished
Positive Reinforcement
effect on behavior: strengthen
action: present
type of stimulus: desirable
Negative Reinforcement
effect on behavior: strengthen
action: remove
type of stimulus: aversive
Punishments (Type I)
effect on behavior: weaken
action: present
type of stimulus: aversive
Punishment (Type II; Time Out)
effect on behavior: weaken
action: remove
type of stimulus: desirable
effect on behavior: weaken
action: withhold
type of stimulus: desirable
Spontaneous Recovery
behavior reappears without reinforcement
responding in similar way to slightly different stimuli
teaching individuals to notice the unique aspects of similar stimuli/situations (to prevent generalization)
reinforcing of action or behavior that move individual progressively closer to the desired terminal behavior
select target behavior -> obtain baseline -> select reinforcer -> reinforce on a schedule
Fixed Interval Schedule
learner is reinforced for the first desired response that occurs after a predetermined amount of time has elapsed (behavior may decrease earlier in the interval)
Variable Interval Schedule
length of time between reinforcement is random but averages out to predetermined interval
Fixed Ratio Schedule
reinforcement is provided whenever a predetermined number of responses are made (relatively brief period of no or few responses immediately after reinforcer is delivered)
Variable Ratio Schedule
reinforcement after a different number of responses from one time to the next according to a predetermined average (reinforcer is unpredictable -> learners tend to respond rapidly for long periods of time)
Simulation Programs
problem solving programs that mimic the real work using previous knowledge to solve problems
Tutorial Programs
teaches new information and skills in a step by step approach
Operant Conditioning in Education
-set expectations (clarify goals)
-sequence of materials (logical order)
-self pacing (set by student)
-program the subject matter
Token Economies
Goal: Increase or strengthen target behavior
Method: Using something that has no inherent value but that can be used to “purchase” things that do have inherent value
Contingency Contacting
Goal: Increase or strengthen target behavior
Method: Formal method of specifying desirable behaviors and consequent reinforcement (Written/Verbal contract; Mutual acceptance)
Information Processing Theory
Understand HOW people acquire
-New information
-Store it
-Information is stored in steps and stages
-Limits to information capacity at each stage
-System is interactive (Information stored in memory influences and is influenced by perception and attention
-Recall from memory
-Role of previous knowledge and information in determining what and how something is learned)
Cognition vs. Metacognition
The way information is processed
Attended to, recognized, encoded, stored, retrieved, and purposefully used

-Knowledge and awareness of cognitive operations
-Understanding of how operations may be used to achieve a learning goal

Information Processing in the Classroom
-Use techniques that attract and hold attention (Practice will help students increase attention span)
-Organize material for students (encourage older students to organize for themselves)
– Make what students learn more meaningful (Concrete terms, Visual terms)
-Highlight and help students recognize connection between what they already know and what they are learning
-Use appropriate rehearsal (Meaning making, Chunking)