psychosocial moratorium
A time with few responsibility
Identity vs. Identitiy diffusion?
Mary is trying to decide what major she wants to choose in college.
Emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive, express, understand and manage emotions is most accurately called?
Cognitive capacity for self awareness
18-24 months.
Temperament is
genetically based individual differences in emotion
example of self motivation
Sylvia is an enthusiastic and confident student. she enjoys the process of goals setting and the satisfaction she feels after achieving a particular goal.
social referencing
Model emotional responses
How to increase Self-motivation
provide students with specific feedback on assignments, identifies students strengths, help them set goals, models perseverance, and encourages them to give their best effort.
Posed a challenge when Trying to Implement SEL
lack of support from school leadership, limited professional development for staff.
Five Assumptions Of behavioral Leaning theories
1. Learning must include a change in behavior
2. Behavior occurs due to experiences in the environment
3. learning must include an association between a stimulus and a response
4. the stimulus and the response must occur close together in time.
5. Learning processes are very similar across different species.
Differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning
voluntary and involuntary
Unconditioned Stimulus
the behavior or event that evokes an automatic response.
unconditioned response
the automatic behavior caused by the stimulus which can be psychological or emotional, (fear)
Neutral stimulus
Include shapes, behaviors, sounds and smells.
Conditioned stimulus
learned stimulus that evokes a conditioned response or learned response.
Conditioned response
the response to the conditioned stimulus
generalization
conditioned learning
discrimination
differentiated
extinction
removing stimulus
Pavlov
Study illustrates a physical response classical conditioning also demonstrates how emotions, particular fears can be learned.
Watson
Classical conditioning with the white rabbit and baby Albert.
Thorndike
Operant Conditioning results of his experiment lead to the laws of effects.
Skinner
expanded on operant conditioning form the ABC of learning
Law of effect
behavior associtaed with good consequences are repeated and ones assicatied with bad ones not repeated.
Environmental experiences
The primary forces behind behavior change
Classical Conditional
a neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus
positive punishment
Ms. Barrett glares at Laura when her attention wanders.
ABC of operant conditioning stands for
Antecendent, Behavior, consequence
Shaping
to reinforce behavior that isn’t there.
Central to social cognitive theory is that learning
occurs by observing others.
Vicarious
In social cognitive theory learning by observing others behavior is most accurately labeled_________ learning?
Illustrates a symbolic model
Gina wants to buy the same clothes that she sees her favorite actress wearing on tv.
the three aspects related to personal factors in learning are best described as
reciprocal and bidrectional
The two factors that contribute to learning in social cognitive theroy is
self-efficacy and self regualtion
poor self efficacy
Alex has struggled with math in the past so in his new math class he doesn’t even try anymore
Self- regulation
The ability to control ones emotions, cognition s and behaviors by providing consequences to oneself
What best describes collective efficacy?
The belief of success about a school system as a whole
Which most accurately describes the development pattern of self-regulation?
Younger children have the lowest levels of it, and increases steadily as children get older.
Assumptions of the information processing approach
Meaning is personally constructed by the learner and its influences
cognitve processes influences learning
People are selective about what they pay attention too.
Three-stage model of information processing
Sensory memory, working memory, longterm memory
Sensory memory
has capacity and duration of a few seconds unlimited capcity.
working memory
duration 5-20 seconds
explicit
all infomation we are consciously aware of, ex. multiplication facts
implicit knowledge
not aware memories of common routines
Episodic
memory of an event
declarative
compilation of verbal fact
procedual
how to do something
conceptual
why something is the case
dual coding theory
suggest that information is remembered best when encoded inboth visual and verbal forms
network theory
information can be stored as a proposition
schema theory
information easier to remmber if it fits into an existing theme
Meta cognition
thinking about ones own thing process
Metacognitive Knowledge
knowledge about our own cognitive process and understanding of ho to regulate those process.
Metacognitve requlation
control ones own beliefs emotions and values
Theory of Mind
understanding of the mind and the mental world.
false belief
apperance
visual perspective taking
introspection: awareness of ones thoughts
Adolescent egocentrism
difficulty differentiating between ones own thoughts and the thoughts of others
imaginary audicence
believes she is the focus of attention
Personal Fable
believe they are unique so no one eles can understand their situations.
What factors influence the develoment and use of metacognition skills
neurological impairment, environment family experiences, individual characteristics.
Reading comprehension
summarizing, clarifying, questioning, predicting
PQ4R
Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review
Transfer
influence of prior knowledge skill, stragties
Low-road
sponaneous automatice transfer of highly practiced skills with little need for reflection
high road transfer
purposely and consciously applies general knowledge a strategy or a princple learned from a situion to anotther
Automaticity
occurs when someone performs a skill very fast and very accurate with little attention.
Meaningful learning
posses deep level knowledge structures that are connected to similar concepts.
rote memorization
not meanifully connected; transfer unlikely
reflective practice
develops conceptual understanding transfer likely
specific vs general transfer
Theory of identical elements
Doctrine of formal discipline
Students can transfer general knowledge even if the task are unrelated.
Higher order thinking skills
involves complex process that tranform and applies you knowledge
thinking dispostions
tend