Cognitive Learning
-Learning is an internal process -Changes in mental processes and structures that occur as people try to make sense of the world 
4 Main Principles
1.Leaners are Active2. New understanding depends on prior knowledge 3. Learners construct (not record) meaning 4.

Learning is a change in a person’s mental structures;

Atkinson and Shiffrins Moddel
;;;Executive Control (metacognition);;;; ;; ;;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;; V;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; V;Outside Stimuli–> Sensory Register–>Working                                            memory–>LongTerm                                                             Memory                    Permanently lost^  ^Response    ^                                                                Forgotten
1. Outside Stimuli
Senses; anything in the enviro -Visual/Iconic-Auditory/Echoic-Tactile-Offactory-Taste 
2.Sensory Register
-Unlimited capacity-Limited Duration Visual Stimuli: Iconic memory, 1/2 secondAuditory Stimuli:Echoic memory, 0-4 Seconds -No meaning given to stimuli here; just holds information until it can be processed 
Instructional Implications
Present information in both visual and auditory forrm to increase chances of it not being lost
Consciously focusing on stimulus -Selective and limited 
Attention: Selective
Learner able to choose one frrom among many stimuli, trains of thought-Example: Read and realize you dont know what your reading; Listen to a lecture and realize your daydreaming 
Attention: Limited
We can only attend to so many things at once. choosing one thing necessarily means not attending to something else
 4 Ways to impact Attention
Variations of the stimulus (cues)*Bold Print, Color, Boxes-Discrepency: Biological drive to make sense of our environment, so we attend to *Complexity*Ambiguity*Incongruity (things that we see that dont jive with what we know) –Commanding StimuliMeaningfulness 
-A persons interpretation of stimuli-Influenced by mental state, past experience, prior knowledge, motivation, ect. 

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Working memory (Short term memory)

-Where a learner delibrately, actively, consciously works on information –Limited capacity*5-9 bits of information*Use chunking to combat limits -Limited Duration *15-20 Seconds*Use matenance rehearsal to combat limits 
Cognitive Load
The limit of working memory
Cognitive Load: Rehearsal
Mental repitition of information -Maintenence: 3.14…..


.3.14….Elaborative: JFK FDR IKE LBJ 

Cognitive Load: Chunking
Mentally combining separate terms into larger, more meaningful units Example: Phone Numbers 
Cognitive load: Organization
Find relationships within new information Example: grocery list 
Cognitive Load: Automaticity
The point at which one can attend to information and perform mental processes with little or no effort Example: Driving 
Cognitive Load: Dual Processing
Coding information that use both visual and auditory stimuli Example: Lecture and slides 
4. Long Term memory
-Infinite capacity-Unlimited duration-Where we "store" everything we know (doesnt mean we can retrieve it) 
WM–>LTM 4 ways of Encoding 
Rehearsal: Includes chunkingOrganization: internal connections; see relationships witin to be learned information (Geometry and pool) Elaboration: external connections; connect to be learned information with prior knowledge and experience; relies on prior knowledge so using multiple examples is bestEncoding specifity: Knowledge is retrieved from LTM in ways simlilar to those in which it was initially encoded  (Study drunk–>do well drunk)
Encoding: Massed Practice
Trying to burn information into memory Cramming: Increases possibility of retrieval failure; cognitive load issues 
Encoding: Distributed Practice
 Spacing effect: When information is organized and elaborated over time and with multiple opportunities and means for encoding, retrieval is easier -Increases exposure opportunities-More links to prior knowledge 
Getting information from WM to LTM
Retrieval: Cue dependent, based on depth of processing in LTM Retrieval cue failure: inhibitation of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory 
WM–>LTM: Interference
Inhibition of recall of certain inforamtion by the presence of other information in memory -Proactive interference: Prior knowledge gets in the way of remembering new knowledge; present knowledge effects learning ahead in time (Driving in Europe)  -Retroactive interference: New knowledge gets in the way of retrieving prior knowledge, new knowledge interferes wit old knowledge (Language learning) 
Networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information
Executive Control Functions
Primary purpose is to serve as a management center 4 Main Aspects1.

Control Processes2. Planning3. Monitoring4.Fix up strategies 

Executive Control Functions: 1.Control processes
Knowing possible strategies, given current conditions(Prep for test, dont watch TV) 
Executive Control Functions: 2.


Choose strategies for organization and elaboration to maximize retrieval
Executive Control Functions: 3. Monitoring
Watch our own cognition and recognize when strategies are not working
Executive Control Functions: 4. Fix-up strategies
Know strategies to use when current ones arent working (reading doesnt make sense, go back and reread)
Awareness of own cognition and learning (strategies and conditions for using them) -Knowing when you know something-Knowing when you dont know something 
Embedded vs. isolated
Better encoding


Generation effect

2. Levels of processing
4. Answering questions
6. Elaboration 

Mnenomic Devices: 1. Method of Loci
Imagine a familiar location and situate items in that location
Mnemonic Devices:Link Method
Link one item to another
Mnemonic Devices: Stories
Tell an elaborate story with a list
Mnemonic Devices:First letter method
First letter of each word spells out another word
Mnemonic Devices:Keyword method
Use a part of a particular word to generate meaning from it
Mnemonic Devices: Peg method
Take a rhyme word and associate it with the list item
Note taking
Mental processing of main ideas
Good when there is a good understanding of "critical" information-Less is more 
Brief statements about what was read
Writing to learn
Explain in writing the concepts being learned (journals)
Outlining and mapping
Diagramming connections and indentifying main ideas
PreviewQuestionRead ReflectReciteReview 
Primacy and Recently effects:Recall early and late items from a list -Not always accurate; learning is construction -Flashbulb memories: Episodic memories tied to a specific event Relearning: Learning inforamtion the second time around is a lot easier and faster than the first 
Encoding: Generation Effect
Information self generated is retrieved better
Encoding: Level of meaning
The deeper the meaning the better Example: yearbook 
Encoding: Advanced Organizers
Overview of information
Encoding: answering questions
Encoding; organization
OUtlining, mapping, heirarchies, charts, matrices
Encoding: Elaboration
Examples, analogies, mnemonic devices