6 major principles of IDEA
Zero reject, NIDE (nondiscriminatory ID and Evaluation), FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education), LRE (Least Restrictive Environment), Due Process, Parent and Student Participation and shared Decision-making
Continuum of Alternative Placements
1. Gen. Ed. Classroom 2. Gen Ed. Class with consultation 3. Gen. Ed. Class with Supplementary instruction and services 4. resource room 5.separate classroom 6. Sep. school 7. Residential school 8. Homebound or Hospital
How does the pre-referral process begin?
Parent reports concerns, teacher reports concerns, screening test results suggest possible disability
A vast majority of schools have pre-referral intervention. What are common names of those teams?
Early intervening team, intervention assistance team, student support team, teacher assistance team, instructional support team
What is the purpose of pre-referral intervention teams?
to assist gen ed teacher with students who show academic or behavioral difficulties,
What is RtI?
Response to intervention
Define tier 1
Research based effective instruction in Gen Ed class
Define tier 2
In Gen Ed class but more intensive and/or different methods. This is the pre-referral intervention.
define tier 3
Special Education
at what point in the RtI process is the referral made?
at the dividing line between tier 2 and tier 3.
What was the old way of referring students for special education?
IQ/Achievement Discrepancy Model (A.K.A. “Wait to Fail”) characterized by low IQ score and grade level aptitude behind current grade of student.
What is MFE?
Multi-factored Evaluation. No recommendation for special education can be made based on one factor alone (e.g. IQ score)
What does IDEA stand for?
Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act
At what rate are teachers correct in their recommendation of a student for special education evaluation?
90% of referred children are evaluated. 73% of evaluated children are found eligible
When must the MFE be completed?
Within 60 days of parental consent
Who plans special education for a student?
The IEP (Individualized Education Plan) team
How is the IEP structured?
What (goals and objectives)
How (specialized instruction and related services)
Who (teachers and related service-providers)
When (frequency of specialized instruction and related services)
Who is on the IEP team?
Parents, Gen Educators, Special Educators, Representative of school or district, Person who can interpret evaluations, Perhaps others who know the student, Perhaps the student
Placement process
Placement decision made.
Student receives education in LRE
How is progress of an LD student monitored?
Ongoing progress evaluation, Schools are responsible for FAPE, Accountability requires measurement, Measures of performance should be direct and frequent
How often is special education placement evaluated?
Annually. All aspects reviewed at least once a year. Plan revised if team sees a need for it to change.
Describe the re-evaluation process.
Determines if special services continue to be necessary. MFE and IEP meeting every 3 years unless all parties agree it is unnecessary.
LD characteristics.
Problems with: listening, reasoning, memory, attention, selecting/focusing on relevant stimuli, perception/processing of visual/auditory info
results of LD
reading problems, deficits in written language, underachievement in math, poor social skills, attention deficits and hyperactivity, behavior problems, low self-esteem/efficacy
most common characteristic of LD
Reading problems (90% of students referred)
BIG red flag if children don’t learn to read by the end of first grade
Describe dyslexia
persistent deficit, word recognition difficulty (accuracy and/or fluency), poor spelling and decoding, result from phonological deficit, most sever problems occur at the word level, phonemic awareness most severe cognitive problem
describe visual naming speed and the difficulties associated with it.
the ability to recognize and process words at sight. Students with reading LD have trouble retrieving that information.
2 ways visual naming speed problems damage comprehension:
faster readers encounter more words. more “cognitive resources” devoted to recognition fewer are available for comprehension.
Name the written language deficits students with LD experience.
vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Also, these students approach writing with minimal planning, effort and metacognitive control.
Effective writing instruction for students with LD.
explicit instruction on specific skills. writing strategies. frequent opportunities for practice with systematic feedback.
Typical issues of math underachievement in students with LD
numerical reasoning, calculations, retrieval deficits, story problems, math competence progresses 1 year for every 2 plateauing by 10-12 years old
effective math instruction for students with LD
systematic and explicit instruction. guided meaningful practice and consistent, frequent feedback.
5 dimensions of language
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
2 types of communication disorders
speech impairments, and language impairments
characteristics of speech impairments
articulation disorder – abnormal production of speech
fluency (stuttering)
voice (unusually high or low pitch)
2 types of language impairments
receptive – hinders understanding
expressive – hinders production (confused order of sounds)
4 types of articulation disorders
distortions – (lisping)
substitutions – (“crain” as “train”; children think they said it the right way)
omissions – (“school” as “cool”)
additions – (“hammer” as “hamber”)
2 types of fluency disorders
stuttering – very common, barely understood, more common in boys, situational
cluttering – extra and/or mispronounced sounds, often unintelligible
prevalence of communication disorders
2nd largest category, 2.5% of school population (19% of special ed), underestimated due to comorbidity
What is AAC?
Augmentative and alternative communication. Ranges from paper/pencil to a communication board to computerized voice output device.
ED/EI/EBD types and characteristics
externalizing behaviors: non-compliance, yell/talk out of turn/curse, hit or fight, argue excessively, steal, lie, destroy property, complain excessively, disturb peers, temper tantrums.
internalizing: fearful without reason, frequent complaints of sickness or injury, bouts of depression, anxiety, mood, or other disorders
types of anxiety, mood and other disorders associated with internalizing EI students
generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, obsessive/compulsive disorder, anorexia, bulimia, PTSD, depressions, bipolar disorder
EI academic indicators
increasingly and significantly behind peers; deficits in reading, math, and study skills; 2/3 cannot pass grade level exams; more likely to get D’s and F’s than other students with other disabilities, deficits remain stable or increase with age; high absenteeism, 60% drop out, behavior/academic relationship is reciprocal (chicken or egg)
social and delinquency affects on students with EI
no study has found IQ over 100 (unreliable); often rejected by peers; often score low on empathy measures; 13.3 times more likely to be arrested, about half are recidivists
prevalence of EI
3-10%; far fewer identified; ID tends to be determined more by available resources than needs of the child; 75%+ are boys; overidentified
2 components of identification and assessment of EI
FBA (Functional behavioral assessment) – determines purpose of behavior, part of MFE; BIP (Behavioral intervention plan) Required IEP component
effective approaches to issues of students with EI
positive approaches to behavior; explicit instruction for academic instruction
what is OHI?
Other health impairments
2 categories of OHI
orthopedic impairments,
other health impairments
common types of orthopedic impairments
cerebral palsy, spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injuries, epilepsy
symptoms of ADHD
faulty attention;
both related to lack of inhibition
3 types of ADHD
combined (55%)
predominantly inattentive (27%)
predominantly hyperactive/impulsive (18%)
behavioral interventions for ADHD
positive reinforcement for on-task behavior; systematic and gradual instruction in self-control
IDEA definition of Intellectual disability
2 or more standard deviations below the mean on standardized intelligence test; significantly below average in adaptive behavior (routines without support)
other terms synonymous with intellectual disability
mental retardation (MR), EMR (emotionally mentally retarded) mild, TMR (trainable mentally retarded) moderate,
classification of MR by IQ scores
Mild: 50-55 to approx. 70
moderate: 35-40 to 50-55
severe: 20-25 to 35-40
profound: below 20-25
timing of MR
rarely time-limited
mild MR not ID’s until 2nd-3rd grade
severe/profound ID’d at birth or shortly thereafter
MR cognitive functioning deficits
Memory (short term much more problematic)
learning rates
attention (focus on distracting irrelevant stimuli; effective instruction must control for this)
Generalization (must be taught in multiple settings in multiple ways)
Motivation (learned helplessness)
MR Adaptive behavior deficit characteristics:
self-care/daily living skills (environmental supports: added prompts, simplified routines)
social development (making and keeping friends very difficult)
behavioral excesses and challenging behavior (limited self-control, difficulty accepting criticism, aggression or self-injury)
MR Educational approaches
self-determination (decision-making, goal-setting, problem-solving, self-advocacy)
academic (reading, writing, math)
functional (maximize independence through: shopping, cooking, ordering in a restaurant, transportation, telling time)
MR educational placements
Mild – segregated classes
moderate and severe – special schools
What is ASD?
autism spectrum disorder
IDEA definition of ASD
Developmental disability affecting communication and social interaction, evident before age 3
DSM-IV definition
(a.k.a. PDD pervasive developmental disorder)
includes: autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD-NOS
3 criteria of autistic disorder
impairment of social interaction
impairment of communication
restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior
onset gradual or sudden
average age of parental notice is 15 months
describe asperger syndrome
mild end of the spectrum
impairments in all social areas
no language delay
most children with asperger have average to above average intelligence
making and sustaining friendships very difficult
may be considered slackers
characteristics of asperger’s
stereotypy, perseveration
intense interest in a particular subject
preoccupation with one’s own interests
fine/gross motor difficulties
zero-order skill deficits
inflexible adherence to routines (changes very upsetting) i.e. fire drills
superior rote memory
SLI in semantics, pragmatics, ad prosody
difficulty with theory of mind
extensive vocab, early reader
other types of ASD
rett syndrome – mostly girls
childhood disintegrative disorder
pervasive development disorder NOS – catch all diagnosis
ASD characteristics
impaired social relationships
communication and language difficulties – half are mute, concrete or literal processing of verbal info
intellectual functioning and “autistic savants”
sensory issues
insistence on sameness or perseveration
ritualistic and unusual behavior patterns – sterotypy
severe problem behavior
ASD strengths
when describing characteristic, people with ASD focus on social deficits; people with ASD focus on intellectual strengths

“obsessions” can and should be considered “special interest areas”