Examples of incidental learning
Winning; Being on time; Following the rules
High school curriculum
Focuses on specialized and separate content course
The “how”; It’s the art and science of teaching
Replaced the TAKS test; Is intended to be more rigorous
State mandated student assessment program in Texas; Was replaced 2011-2012
State-mandated curriculum guidelines that establish what every student should know and be able to do (from elementary though high school) in Texas
the process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by standardized tests, as well as holding educators responsible for students’ performance
The “A B C D” of a multiple choice question
The process teachers use to gather information and make decisions about students’ learning and development
Criterion referenced tests
Measure student performance against some agreed on level of performance
Formal assessment
Systematic teacher attempts to gather information from each students; Can take many forms such as quizzes, tests, and homework; Can provide you as the teacher with picture of learning that is occurring in your classroom
National Committee on Excellence in Education
Published “A Nation at Risk”
Developed the idea of the Spiral Curriculum
Content Standards
Detail what students should know and be able to do in each subject; are efforts to define common subject matter guidelines
Explicit/Formal Curriculum
Is the organization of intended outcomes for which schools take responsibility; Is reflected in such things as curriculum guides, courses offered, syllabi, tests gives; Is the planned content of instruction that enables schools to meet its aims
Forces/factors that influence curriculum
Teachers, Parents, Students, Admins, Colleges and universities, Education commissions and committees, Professional organizations, Special interest groups, Publishers, Government, Textbooks, Standards and accountability
Implicit/Hidden Curriculum
Emerges incidentally from the interadion between the students and the environments of school; influences the attitudes and values
The strategies teachers use to help reach learning goals in the curriculum
Middle school curriculum
Attempt to integrate the curriculum, combining and relating concepts and skills from different disciplines
Spiral Curriculum
Repeition, returning to the topic; Some topic may be examined at more detailed and difficult levels as grade level increases
A Nation at Risk
Began in 1983; This report noted education’s shortcomings and advocated for back the the basics
Direct Instruction Model
Designed to promote students’ procedural knowledge (knowing how to do something); teacher centered model is “businesslike” and task oriented
Formative Evaluation/Assessment
Collect before and during instruction; Intended to inform teachers about their students’ prior knowledge and skills in order to assist with planning; used to make judgments about student grouping, unit and lesson plans, and instructional strategies; can include formal and informal assessments
High-Stakes Test
Standardized assessments that states and districts use to determine whether students will advance from one grade to another, graduate high school, or have access to specific fields of study
Informal Assessment
Gathered continually during instruction; Used to make split-second instructional and management decisions
Standards Movement
Commonly traced back to publication of “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform”; Published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education
Syntax of Direct Instruction
Phase 1: Provide objectives and establish set
Phase 2: Demonstrate knowledge or skill
Phase 3: Provide guided practive
Phrase 4: check for understanding and provide feedback
Phase 5: Provide extended practice
Academic Learning time/ALT
Amount of time students are both engaged and successful
Engaged Time
Time students actually spend actively involved in learning activities
Instructional Time
Amount left for teaching after routine management and administrative tasks are completed
Learning Community
A place in which the teacher and all the students work together to help everyone learn
The cooperation of students according to Doyle
When teacher addresses the misbehavior while continuing the lesson
“Eyes in the back of your head”; When misbehavior occurs, the teacher is quick and accurate in addressing the issue
Procedural knowledge
Knowing how to do something
Describes the quality of assessment information
An educator associated with the second education reform wave; recommends that students cover fewer topics but study them in greater depth
The Part of a multiple choice question that presents the problem
Related Assessment related Acrivity
Summative Assessment/Evaluation
Collected after instruction has happened; typically at end of unit or lesson; Purpose to see how well a particular student or group of students performed the learning objective; Used by teachers to make decisions about grades
Teacher-made Tests
Provide content and lesson specific information about learning process; designed to provide feedback for both teachers and students; administered frequently throughout the school year
Refers to the extent to which assessment results are interpreted and used appropriately
When a teacher starts an activity, leaves it, and never returns to it
Desist Incident
Any occurrence that is seriousness enough, that if not dealt with will lead to widening management problems
When a teacher stats a topic or activity, leaves it, and returns
When it occurs, it makes transitions bumpy; When teacher over breaks down instruction into overly detailed instructions
Group Alerting
Questioning technique to keep students on their toes
Teacher go over and over it even after students get it; Can apply to academic content or infer as well as correcting misbehavior
Positive Classroom Climate
Refers to a class in which learners feel physically and emotionally safe, personally connected to both their teacher and their peers
Useful in terms of preventative management; can be extremely useful; useful during unstable periods; Can have many of these
Only about 3 – 5; Posted somewhere in the classroom; should be fair and reasonable; for the growth and maturation of students; be applied consistently and impartially; should be stated positively
When the class goes from one activity to another; cue and signals
Alliterative Item Fault
3-1 split between vowels to consonants in multiple choice questions
Choice C Item Fault
Choice C is over used in multiple choice questions
Grammatical clue Item Fault
using A or AN to help the student to establish the correct answer in multiple choice questions
Long Choice Item Fault
One choice is longer than the rest in multiple choice questions
Stem Cue Item Fault
The stem does not present a clear, single, definate problem
Null Curriculum
Part of the “invisible curriculum”; What is left out of the formal curriculum; what is not taught or learned but students know that it exists; it refers to subjects that are not taught or learned by students know it exists
Target Mistake
Not accurate when giving blame to a student who misbehaves
When teacher verbalizes a random thought while teaching and/or while students are engaged in work
Performance Standards
Assess how well students are meeting content standards; such as TAKS and STAAR