Achievement Gap
Describes the circumstances in which some studentsm primarily those from socially, culturally, and linguistically marginalized and poor families, achieve less that other students
African American/Black
African American implies culture rather than color; Black includes people of African descent from all around the world
Contributions approach level
Typically one class one period
Includes study of ethnic heroes, holidays, and/or foods
superficial level
celebrating a holdiay (like cinco de mayo)
Deficit theories
Assume that some children, because of genetic, cultural or experiential differences, are inferior to other children
Demographis profile of teacher candidates
Women of Euro-American discent
93% of elementary majors and 75% of secondary majors are reported to be women
75% of public school teachers were women in the 1999-2000 school year
Middle Class
Rural or suburban communities
Result (equity is the process)
European Americans
White people generally think of themselves as the norm and seldom think of themselves as an ethnic group. European American challenges whites to see themselves as ethnic. Everybody has a culture
General Characteristics of prospective teachers
Typical demographic profile of teacher education candidates
General orientations held by prospective teachers
Goals of mutlicultural education
Confront inequality and promote access to an equal education
Raise the achievement of all students and provide them with an equitable and high-quality education
Promote democracy by preparing students to contribute to society
Hybrid Identity
Refusing to accept rigid categorization based on culture, race, or other kind of social grouping that is constantly changing.
Key assumptions of multicultural educations
Students learn in different ways
Teachers recognize and respond to these differences
Must be understood whithin its larger, personal, social, historical and political context
It is everyone (regardless of ethnicity, race, language, social class, religion, gender, sexual orientation, ability and other differences)
People of Latin American and Caribbean Spanish speaking heritage
Educational equity
Muliticultural Education
Refers to educational policies and practices that not only recognize but also affirm human differences and similarities associated with gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, disability, and class
Refers to the overarching ideas that all students ought to experience an equal opportunity to learn
Narrow framework of reference/experience
National Center for Education Statistics. Primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education
Nieto and Bode
People of color
Used as overarching term to encompass: American Indians, African Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans. Implies important connections among the groups and underlines some common experiences in the US. Also implies a common historical experience for all groups which an illusion. Light skinned ethnically diverse people risk implying that they have experienced the same level virulent racism as their darker skinned compatriots
Preferences for future practice
Social construct; Socially and not biologically determined
Social action approach/level
View issues from multiple perspectives
Become involved; problem-solve
(environmental issues and conservation)
Sociopolitical context of society
Includes laws, regulations, policies, practices, traditions, and ideologies
Transformation approach/level
Views events and issues from different perspectives
Structure of curriculum is changed or transformed
(viewing westward expansion of europeans via the eyes of native americans)
Unrealistic optimism
Annual testing
2005-2006, reading and math assesments (grades 3-8) required annually
2007-2008 science assesments ( in elementary, middle, and high) started being used
Each state decides on which test to use and what “proficient” (or passing) is
2013-2014, all students were suppossed to be proficient in reading and math; unattainable
Biilngual Education Act
Legislation where federal financial incentives were provided to schools that initiated bilingual education programs. Some refer to as a “carrot approach.” It expired in 2002 and was not renewed
Includes the knowledge, attitudes, values, customs, behavior patterns that characterize a social group
ESL Program
Refers to a person’s ancestry; the way people identify themselves with the nation they or their ancestors came from. It is a component of culture
Faculty qualifications
Gender and classroom practice
Encourage equal participation
Could call on everyone in class individually and by name, regardless of whether their hands are raised
Make an effort to present cases of men and women in non-stereotypical roles (women engineers)
Encourage girls to pursue science-related careers and boys to consider careers in non traditional male friends ( nursing)
Gender-role identity
Lau V. Nichols
Maintainence approach
Approach through which students are instructed in both languages in a dual language classroom setting ideally from K-12. It also places the greatest emphasis on using and sustaining the first language while teaching english
Multicultural Education
Additive approach/level
Special units and topic anout various gruops added to curriculum
No substantial change; one week or month
Additions made are often as a special week or month of study
(women’s history month)
Refers to the entire western hemisphere; and to all people living in North, central, and south america
Culturally insular
Demographic forecasting
Diversity dimensions/categories
General orientations of prospective teachers
Kauchak and Eggen
Always changing
Reflection of societal changes
Mirrors social, economic, and political events
Multigroup membership
Native American
The term Native American became a term in the 60’s for the original inhabitants of North America due to these people’s determination to name themselves and have others recognize them as the original inhabitants of this land
No Child Left Behind
Signed into law Jan 8 2002
Latest version of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEEA)
Most significant Federal Education policy initiative in a generation
Set deadlines for states to expand the scope and frequency of student testing, revamp their accountability systems and take steps to guarantee taht every teacher is qualified
Public school student population
RATE studies
Social justice
Twin challenges of equality and excellence
Bilingual education
Refers to the use of two languages for instruction
Cultural discontinuity
Refers to different ways of communicating and potential miscommunication
Ethnic group
Males and females are different; generally to be celebrated according to Kauchak and Eggen
Gender bias
Discrimination based on gender that limits the growth possibilities of either males or females
Immersion programs
Major provisions of NCLB
Report cards
Transitional approach
Ability grouping
phrase of choice
sorts students based on capability but the grouping may vary
Practice of sorting students of similar abilities into groups and attempting to match instruction to each group
Appropriate eduaction
Between-class ability grouping
Cognitive development
Existential Intelligence
The ability and proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life, death, and ultimate realities
Grade retention
Including all students, even those with severe disabilites, in regular education classroom
Capacity to acquire and use knowledge, solve problems, reason, and abstract
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Can concisely be described as “self-smart”
Logical-mathematical Intelligence
Refers to an effort to move children out of special education classroom into regular education calssrooms to the maximum extent possible; placing students who have special needs in regular classroom setting for at least part of the day; refers to the practice of moving students with exceptionaliites from segregated settings into regular eudcation classroom for selected activites; in past, it referred to placing students with special needs into regular education setting for non-academic periods (lunch); popular in the 70’s
Multiple intelligences
Nondiscrimatory education
PL 94-142
Education for all handicapped children act (1975)
Procedural due process
Special education
Instruction designed to meet the unique needs of students with exceptionalities
Method of placing students according to their ability in homogeneous classes of learning experiences.
Placing students in a series of classes or curricula on the basis of ability and career goals; groupings are across content areas.
According to Oakes, some form of tracking exists in most middle, junior high, and high schools
Working with students who have LD
At-risk students
Students are in danger of failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to function effectively in modern society. They are students who experience problems such as divorced families, poverty, and alcohol or child abuse. Effective schools for these students focus on personal responsibility, cooperation, and mutual respect between teacher and students
Child abuse
New form of bullying that occurs when students use electronic media to harass or intimidate other students
Family changes
Full-service schools
Serve as family resource centers that provide a range of social and health services
Latchkey children
Children who return home to empty houses after school and are left alone until parents/guardians arrive from work
Middle class
Comprised of managers, admisitrators, white-collar workers who perform nonmanual work
Resilient students
They are students who experience detrimental conditions but are able to rise above and succeed
Socio Economic Status (SES)
The combination of family income, parents’ occupations and level of parental education. It influences school success in a number of ways, but has its most powerful influence at the lower income levels.
Third leading cause of teen death, surpassed by car accidents and homicide
People with low incomes who continually struggle with economic problems
Policies call for students to reviece automatic suspensions or expulsions as punishment for certain offenses, primarily those involving weapons, threats, or drugs
Proposition 227
Single-sex classes and schools
Whenever you work with students, you should avoid these; remember that your students are individuals and should treat them as such
Assistive Technology
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
“body smart”
Refers to a movement to eliminate school tracking practices (having heterogeneous NOT homogeneous)
Emotional intelligence
Refers to recognizing, using, understanding, and managing emotions; children who have low EQ “social outcasts”
Refers to learners who need special help to reach their full potential (and includes students with disabilities and giftedness)
Book “Frames of Mind” in 1985
Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI’s)
Question is no longer, “How smart is this student”, but rather, “How is this student smart?”
Federal law passed in the 1990’s, which extends full educationa services and provision to people identified with disabilities; delineates 13 categories of disabilites
Individualized Educational Plan
Each child with a disability is to have an IEP, a written document developed by a team of people that specifies goals, objectives, services, and educations for a student who has a disability and IDEA eligible
Interpersonal intelligence
“people smart”
Learning style
Linguistic intelligence
“word smart”
Least Restrictive Environment; Principle of special education that protects students with disabilities from being inappropriately segregated; it calls for the program best suited to meeting a student’s special needs without segregating the student from the regular educational program
Musical intelligence
“music smart”
Naturalist intelligence
“nature smart”
Principles of special education
Spatial intelligence
“picture smart”
Within-class groupings
Zero reject
Priniciple of special education that states that no child with disabilities may be denied a free, appropriate, public education (FAPE)
More common in middle shcool than in any other grade level. It is a more subtle form of school violence that involves the systematic or repitious abuse of power between students
Violence in schools declining. Usually gang related; declines with higher grades; mostly seen middle schools than any other grades
Four classes of SES
A direct result of poverty. Between 50,000 and 1 million children are homeless. Homeless children are 3x more likely to repeat a grade and 4x more likely to drop out of school than other children
Lower class
Class composed of people who make less than $25,000, have a high school education or less, and work in low-paying, entry level jobs
national school lunch program
Poverty thresholds
Household income levels that represent the lowest earnings required to meet basic living needs
Sexual harassment
Steps to help at-risk students
Traditional family
Upper class
Consists of highly educated, highly paid professionals who generally have an income of over $170,000
Working class
Includes blue collar workers who perform manual labor. Comprised of people with incomes of $25,000 to $40,000, and half own a home
High School Diploma
Over a lifetime, a high school dropout earns $260,000 less than someone with a GED or high school diploma
70% said they weren’t motivated or inspired to work hard; half said their classes weren’t interesting; and two-thirds identified a lack of a challenge