accommodation
new information requires learner to change way of thinking
more knowledgeable other
the “expert”
equilibrium
the process of learning new information
disequilibrium
new information is being presented
zone of proximal development
the range of independent ability and potential ability with the help of an “expert”
assimilation
new information makes sense based on prior knowledge
schema
prior knowledge/background knowledge
scaffolding
the teacher plans tasks students are ready for based on preassessment
goals
standards are derived from/ they are meant to guide national direction for educational choices
performance assessments
learners show what they know by using complex cognitive skills to perform authentic, real-world tasks; tests that measure a skill or behavior directly, as they are used in the world outside the classroom
learning outcomes
an observable and measurable behavior; the end product of an instructional lesson or unit
authentic behaviors
the type of performances required in the real world
affective domain
behaviors that relate to the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values; receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing
metacognitive knowledge
thinking about one’s thinking to become aware of one’s level of knowledge
criterion level
the degree of performance required to achieve a learning objective
interactive individualized practice
lessons on cd-rom that use questions and prompts to actively engage learners and give them immediate feedback
lateral unit planning
planning units that integrate knowledge across disciplines or content areas to convey relationships, patterns, and abstractions
validity
refers to whether a test measures what it says it measures
reliability
refers to whether a test consistently yields the same or similar scores
gudied student practice
the direct instruction strategy of presenting stimulus material and then eliciting practice, directed by the teacher, or the desired behavior
presenting and structuring
the direct instruction strategy for presenting new material in small steps consistent with students’ previous knowledge, ability level, and experience, so learners master one point before the teaher introduces the next point
passive responding
listening to the teacher’s answer, reading about the correct answer, or listening to classmates recite the right answer
feedback and correctives
the direct instruction strategy for handling right or wrong answers
physical prompts
using hand-over-hand assistance to guide the learner to the correct performance
rule-example-rule order
giving a rule, then an example of the rule, and then a repetition of the rule
problem-centered learning
more likely to introduce a graphic organizer to guide learning
think, pair, share
a technique in which students working with buddies learn from one anther and get to try out their ideas in a nonthreatening context before presenting them to the class
student-centered learning
allows the student to select the form and substance of the learning experience
induction
reasoning used to draw a conclusion or make a generalization from specific instances
unguided discovery learning
to maintain high levels of student interest, selecting content based on student problems or interests and providing individually tailored feedback
deduction
reasoning that proceeds from principles or generalizations to their application in specific instances
constructivism
designing and sequencing lessons to encourage learners to use their own experiences to actively construct meaning that makes sense to them, rather than to acquire understanding through exposure to a format organized by the teacher
wait time-1
the amount of time a teacher gives a learner to respond when first ased a question
probe
a question that immediately follows a student’s response to a question
question sequence
structuring, soliciting, and reacting, with many possible variations
divergent question
a question that has many or a broad range of acceptable responses
reacting;
a teacher’s responding to students’ answering of questions
eliciting probes
questions asked to seek clarification of the student’s response to determine its appropriateness or correctness
redirecting probes
questions that restructure a discussion with follow-up to get students back on track
metacognition
reflecting on one’s thinking by internalizing, understanding, and recalling the content to be learned
reciprocal teaching
a type of classroom group dialogue in which the teacher expects students to make predictions, ask questions, and summarize, and clarify the text
functional errors
incorrect or partially correct answers that proved stepping stones for climbing to the next rung of the learning ladder
self-directed learning
actively engages students in constructing their own content understanding and meaning
cognitive learning strategy
methods of thinking that improve learning by helping the learning retain, recall, and build knowledge
zone of maximum response opportunity
the level of content difficulty and behavioral complexity form which the learner can most benefit at the moment a response is given
team-oriented cooperative learning
using terms of heterogeneous learners to increase the collaborative skills, self-esteem, and chievement of individual learners
task structure
in cooperative learning, specifying the goal, strucuring the task, teaching, and evaluating the collaborative process, monitoring group performance, and debriefing
task specialization
breaking a larger task into smaller subparts on which separate groups work
debriefing
gathering feedback about an activity by discussing it, soliciting suggetstions for improving it, and getting observers’ viewpoints about it
passive uninvolvement
when a group member does not care about the goal of the group and becomes silent
cooperative learning
an arrangement in which students work in groups and are rewarded on the basis of the success of the group
advance organizer
a framework or structure that organizes the content into meaningful parts
anticipatory set
aka gaining attention; an instructional event to engage students’ interest, curiosity, and attention
behavioral objectives
a written statement that identifies specific classroom strategies to achieve desired goals and expresses these strategies in a format that allows their affects on learners to be measured
closure
bringing a lesson to its end; looking back at the lesson and reinforcing its key components
cognitive domain
behaviors that relate to the development of intellectual abilities and skills: kowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
concept learning
emphasizes the essential attributes that bind seemingly dissimilar data, materials, objects, or events
content organization
the first step in planning for indirect instruction ex. advanve organizer
convergent question
one that limits an answer to a single or a small number of responses
curriculum guides
grade, department, or school district specifications about what content must be covered in what period of time
declarative knowledge
(factual knowledge) facts, concepts, rules, and generalization pertaining to a specific area or topic; intended to be spoken or written
differentiated instruction
a related approach to responding to your learners’ individual differences
direct instruction
a teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition, presentation-recitation model for teaching facts, rules, and action sequences
examples
representations of a concept that include all the attributes essential for recognizing it as a member of a larger class
nonexamples
items that fail to represent the concept being illustrated by purposely not including one or more of the attributes essential for recognizing them as members of a larger class
gestural prompts
modeling or demonstrating for learners the skill being taught
independent practice
the direct instruction strategy in which the teacher brings facts and rules together in ways that force simultaneous consideration of all the individual units of a problem and connect the units into a single harmonious sequence of action
indirect instruction
teaching strategies that emphasize concept learning, inquiry, and problem solving to teach concepts, patterns, and abstractions
restricted-response questions
one that poses a specific problem for which the student must recall proper information, organize it suitably, derive a defensive conclusion, and express it according to specific criteria
inquiry learning
one of higher-order goals of indirect instruction; emphasis on “how we come to know something” more than “what we know”
interdisciplinary unit
laterally planned unit of study in which topics are integrated to probide a focs on a specific theme; helps students make connections.
reinforcement
either positive or negative; positive-occurs when providing a desired stimuli or reward after a behavior increases it in frequency negative- occurs when the frequency of a behavior is increased by ending or removing some painful, uncomfortable, or aversive state
intermittent reinforcement
applied when you are satisfied with a particular behavior and how frequently it occurs to maintain the behavior at present level.
lateral unit planning
planning units that integrate bodies of knowledge across disciplines or content areas to convey relationships, patterns, and abstractions
learning activity
learning activity
the means of achieving learning outcomes
learning conditions
the specific conditions under which learning will occur
moderating tasks
the means by which the teacher orients students to the objective of the discussion; provides new or more accurate information; reviews, summarizes, and relates opinions and facts; and redirects the flow of information and ideas back to the objective
monitoring 
the process of observing, mentally recording, and when necessary, redirecting or correcting students’ behaviors
portfolio assessment
a collection of work that shows a learner’s growth in proficiency, long-term achievement, and significant accomplishments in a given academic are
Praxis
a series of assessments for entering a teacher-training program, becoming licensed, and/or for the 1st year of teaching
problem-centered learning 
identifies and provides for students in advance all the steps required to solve a particular problem
procedural knowledge
action sequences or procedures used in a problem-solving or decision-making task; learning action sequences or procedures to follow; knowledge how to do things
project-based learning
promoting intrinsic motication by organizing instruction around the tasks most likely to introduce and support learner interest, effort, and persistence
psychomotor domain
behaviors that relate to the coordination of physical movements and performance
reflecting teaching
teaching that is inspired by the tacit or personal knowledge gained from day-to-day experiences; a teacher who is thoughtful and self-critical about his or her teaching
rule-example-rule-order
giving a rule, then an example of the rule, and then a repetition of the rule
standards
general expressions of educational values that provide a sense of direction in decision making
task ability grouping
grouping your class for a specific period of time by the skills required to learn the material you are presenting
teacher mediated learning
adjusting the instructional dialogue to help students restructure their learning and construct their own meanings from the content
verbal prompts
cues, reminders, or instructions to learners that help them correctly perform the skill being taught
vertical unit planning
a method of developing units in a discipline by arranging the content to be taught hierarchially or in steps and in an order that ensures that all task-relevant prior knowledge required for subsequent lessons has been taught in previous lessons