Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor (birth-2)
Preoperational (2-6)
Concrete operational (6-12)
Formal Operational (12-adulthood)
Sensorimotor stage
(birth-2) schemes are based off of what children do and see
Piaget’s Preoperational Stage
(2-6) Beginning of language, but children are egocentric. Do not understand conservation
Concrete Operational
(6-12) Use logic to organize thoughts, aware that other’s thoughts are different than their own, get conservation.
Formal Operational
(12-adult) Think abstractly, higher thinking.
What was Vygotsky’s main premise?
Adults transform or mediate the situations children encounter.
Vygotsky’s 7 stages
1.Encourage them to talk themselves through difficult tasks
2.Provide cognitive tools.
3.Give them tasks they can do with assistance.
4.Provide scaffolding.
5.Have them work in groups.
6.Engage them in adult activities.
7.Give them opportunities to practice through play.
Erik Erikson studied what?
Developmental changes in sense of self
Erikson’s 8 psychosocial stages:
2.Autonomy/shame and doubt
5.Identity/role confusion
4 patterns of behavior in adolescent’s search for identity
1.identity diffusion 2.Identity foreclosure 3.moratorium 4.identity achievement
Identity diffusion
no commitment to a career or belief system
Commitment is made early based on other’s influences (parents)
exploring possible options for career and beliefs
Identity achievement
clear choice of own beliefs and career.
What are Kohlberg’s levels of morality?
2.Conventional(older elementary)
3.Post-conventional(later in life)
Stages in Kohlberg’s pre-conventional level of morality
1.punishment vs. obediance
2. exchange of favors
Stages in Kohlberg’s Conventional level of morality
1.Good boy/good girl
2.Law and order, justice
Stages in Kohlberg’s post-conventional level of morality

1.Social contract (What is good for society?)

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2.Universal ethical principle.