in loco parentis
“in place of the parents” – responsibility of teacher to function as when student is in school.
p240
reduction in force
(RIF) elimination of teaching positions because of declining enrollment or funding
p247
Old Deluder Satan Act
1647 Massachusetts law requiring parents to educate their children. Required town of 50+ families to pay teacher to teach reading & writing to thwart satan.
p319
Morrill Act
1862 federal statute granting each state land for agriculture and mechanical arts.
p336
Kalamazoo case
1874 US Sup Ct decision that upheld the state’s right to tax citizens to create public high schools
p329
Brown v. Board of education of Topeka
1954 US Supreme Court ruling that segregated schools are inherently unequal. Required desegregation.
p338
Title I
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act; delivers federal funds to school districts for ed services for low-income families and supplement ed to low-achieving students
p369
common school
19th century US school designed to serve all classes of people and religions.
p321
latin grammar school
1st type of secondary school in the american colonies to prepare students for college.
p327
Contract
A binding agreement between 2 or more persons.
p244
epistemology
A branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its origins, foundations, limits and vitality.
p287
Grievance
A formal complaint about working conditions.
p244
due process
a process that protects a person’s constitutional right to receive fair and equal protection under the law.
p242
dame school
A school run by a housewife during early colonial days.
p318
magnet schools
alternative school providing special instruction such as fine arts, for specific groups such as gifted or talented or for specific teaching styles.
p390
portfolios
collection of person’s work.
p400
character education
efforts by home, school & religious community to help student know and do good AND forge good qualities such as courage, respect and responsibility.
p405
staff development
efforts to improve skills and competencies of professional staff.
breach of contract
failure to fulfill the requirements of a legal agreement.
p245
categorical grants
Federal aid to education that must be spent for purposes specified by the legislation and the federal agency administering the funds. Much more restrictive in use than Block Grants.
p369
New England Primer
Illustrated book composed of religious texts and other readings. basic text used in schools during the 18th century.
p319
tenure
legal right protecting teachers fromdismissal without adequate cause.
p245
Ethics
Moral Code or sytem. Branch of philosophy that studies right and wrong behavior.
p231
privatization
movement to contract with private organizations, for profit, to operate particular public schools whose students have been performing poorly on tests or to provide specific ed services to public schools (e.g. Sylvan Learning Centers)
p362
NCLB
No Child Left Behind Act (2001) – re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
p369
essentialism
philosophy of a core body of knowledge and skills necessary for effective participation in society. Belief that educated people have this core of knowledge and skills and all children must be taught it.
p295
metaphysics
The attempt to explain the meaning of life without regard to religion.
p286
local school board
Policy making body of a local school district; it represents the citizens of the district in setting up schools, hiring personnel and determining local public ed policy.
p354
intellectual property
product of the intellect that has commercial value (copyrights, patents and trademarks)
p256
charter schools
Public schools in which the educators have made a special contract, or charter, with the chartering agency. Usually charter allows independence in operation.
p390
year-round education
reform effort in some states to more evenly spread the school year out.
p384
zero-tolerance policy
school policy for automatic suspension or expulsion of students who bring forbidden items such as weapons or drug or engage in undesired behavior such as fighting or bullying.
p269
site-based decision making
school reform effort to decentralize allowing decisions to be made at the school level. Teachers become involved in decision making process.
p390
universal education
schooling for everyone
p321
resegregation
Schools returning to a pattern of racial seg after a period of progress toward deseg.
p339
Buckley Amendment
Shorthand for the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) which outlines who may have access to a student’s records.
p279
academic freedom
The freedom of teachers to teach about an issue without fear or penalty.
p251
intelligent design theory
theory of the origins of life that “an intelligence” either created or somehow guided its development.
p263
constructivism
theory that people learn by constructing their own knowledge through an active learning process rather than absorbing knowledge directly from another source.
p307
vouchers
type of ed choice plan giving parents a written statement that they can exchange for schooling they believe is best. School can cash in voucher to pay for resources.
p392
sexual harrassment
Unwanted and unwelcomesexual attention that interferes with ones life.
“teaching to the test”
teachers taught only what was to be tested on the test as more and more states adopt new more rigorous standards.
p398
A Nation at Risk
1983 federal report starting modern reform effort. Called for longer school days, more homework, tougher grading policies, more testing.
p376
Arbington School District v. Schempp
1963 court decision declaring reading bible & reciting Lord’s Prayer unconstitutional (bible may be studied for historical purposes.
p260, 265
B.F. Skinner
psychologist who developed behaviorism (operant conditioning).
p306
block grants
large sum of money granted by the national government to a regional government with only general provisions as to the way it is to be spent. Much less restrictive than categorical grants.
child abuse
Teachers have a duty to safeguard students from abuse and neglect at the hands of their parents or other adults.
p250
Engel v. Vitale
1962 court decision making bible reading and teacher led prayer unconstitutional – because of social pressure, no difference between voluntary and compulsory prayer in school. Private reading & prayer still ok.
p260
Horace Mann
Advocated for Common Schools. Saw ed as tool for liberation by which poor could elevate themselves.
p322
John Dewey
founder of instrumentalism, most influential figure of American ed.
p301
probable cause
substantial reason to believe a person is in posssession of something illegal. Usually needed to conduct a search, courts have lowered this standards for schools.
p272
property tax
taxes on land to fund public education and other state services.
socratic method
method of teaching created by socrates where the teacher is a facillitator of the students reciting the lessons.
p289
state superintendent
chief state school officer responsible for administration of public ed and reports to state board of education.
p353
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
1969 case finding that students’ use of black arm bands in protest of viet nam were protected free speech.
p267, 278
Competency testing

state testing of teachers to make sure of a minimum level of competency. Usually takes place when teachers are leaving teacher education programs.p386

high-stakes testing
testing that carries with it some significant stake in the outcome.  (i.e. school funding or student graduation)