Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954- desegregation
Larry P. vs. Riles
1979- tests cannot be sole determinants of placement in classes for students with MR/ID
Diana vs. State Board of Education of California
1970- cannot use English IQ tests to place ESL learners into special education classes
Mills vs. Board of Education
1972- lack of funds is no excuse for failing to educate students with learning and behavior problems
Irving Independent School District vs. Tatro
1984- Catheterization necessary for child with physical disabilities; obligation of school district
Board of Education of the Hendick Hudson Central School District vs. Rowley
1982- court defines FAPE as giving students a reasonable opportunity to learn rather than an education that allows students to maximize potential
Honig vs.


1988- lead to the Javits Act for Gifted and Talented
PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennslyvania
1972- children with MR/ID entitled to FAPE, preferably regular classrooms in public schools; lead to Sec 504
Cedar Rapids Community School District vs. Garrett F
1999- expanded and clarified concept of related services to include intensive continuous school health care services necessary for student to attend school; lead to No Child Left Behind
Multicultural Education
curriculum that reflects diversity and cultures of society
Disproportionate Representation
under and over representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in terms of educational classification and placement
Universal Design for Learning
process for considering the needs of all students in the classroom and designing curriculum, instruction and evaluation with sufficient flexibility so that each student benefits
Individualized Education PlanIEP must be developed for every student with disabilities that qualifies for sevices between ages 3-21 (IDEA)includes child’s present level of performance, measurable annual goals, services provided
Response to Intervention
prereferral intervention within the context of early intervening services and a method of determining eligibility for special education
Multidisciplinary Collaboration
assessment and IEP development are completed independently by each professional
Interdisciplinary Collaboration
assessment and IEP development are usually completed jointly by all staff members
Transdisciplinary Collaboration
all aspects of students’ educational programs are implemented jointly
an individualized management  tool/document designed to ensure that a student with a disability receives an education appropriate to their  needs.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
1973- authorizes federal support for the rehabilitation and training of individuals with physical and mental disabilities
Education for all Handicapped Children Act
1990- reauthorized and named IDEA
Americans with Disabilities Act
1990- equal opportunity to participate in community, access to supplementary aids and services, and prohibits discrimination in employment
No Child Left Behind 2001
highly qualified teachers using methods based on scientific research working towards adequate yearly progress
Zero Reject
public schools cannot exclude any individual from an education, regardless of severity of disability
Child Find
local districts must identify, locate, and evaluate all children residing in the district with disabilities that need special education
cognitive characteristics of LDAttention
poor selective attention
cognitive characteristics of LDPerception
perceptual problems- how the brain interprets what is seen or heard
cognitive characteristics of LDMemory
short term and long term
cognitive characteristics of LDMetacognition
information processing and relating new info to previous info
academic characteristics of LDReading
phonological awareness, oral fluency, comprehension
academic characteristics of LDOral Language
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
academic characteristics of LDWritten Language
motor coordinatrion, spelling, homonyms, puncutation, capitalization, composition skills
academic characteristics of LDMathematics
math facts, computational skills, measurement, geometry, time, problem solving
social characteristics of LDMotivation
seemingly “not motivated to learn”, external locus of control, learned helplessness
social characteristics of LDSocial Perception & Competence
lower self-esteem, less accepted by peers, rejected by classmates, lower social status, easily bullied and made fun of
Response to Intervention
an approach that uses the students’ response to high-quality instruction to guide educational decisions including instruction, intervention, eligability for special programs, and design of IEPs
Universal Design for Learning (goal)
for each student to have access to the curriculum in a way that promotes the most learning for that individual
Differentiated Instruction
responding to the differing cognitive needs of academically diverse learners in the classroom through adjustments in pacing, method of presentation, or degree of complexity of info
Types of ADHD
1. predominantly inattentive2. predominantly hyperactive/impulsive3.

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Types of ADHD medication
1. stimulant- ritalin, adderall2. antidepressant- prozac, zoloft3. antihypertensives- clonidine, tenex
What are the 4 mental activities associated with executive functions>

working memory2. self-directed speech3. controls of emotions and motivation4. reconstitution

INCLUDE strategy
Identify classroom demandsNote student strengths and needsCheck for successLook for problem areasUse info to brainstormDifferentiate instructionEvaluate progress
Emotional Disturbance
a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
a conduct disorder where students seek control through behavior, are defiant with adults, and vindictive with peers
Conduct Disorder
students who are socially maladjusted intentionally act out or break rules have a _______ ________
Mood Disorders
a specific type of Emotional Disturbance that could include depression or bi-polar disorder
Externalizing Behaviors
readily identified aggressive and act out behaviorsEX- uses physical and or verbal means to force the submission of others, noncompliant with reasonable requests, argues excessively, persistent patters of stealing/lying/cheating, persistent pattern of tantrums, etc.
Internalizing Behaviors
withdrawal symptoms easy to overlookEX- obsessions with thoughts/ideas, depression, feelings of worthlessness, suddenly or frequently cries, complains of headache or stomache ache, suicidal thoughts, often bullied or teases, etc.
Anxiety Disorders
a specific type of Emotional Disturbance that could include OCD or PTSD
Intellectual Disability
significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Adaptive Behavior
deficits in self-care, social skills, communication, home living, work, self-direction, leisure, health and safety, etc.
Task Analysis
identifies the sequence of skills needed to complete a task by breaking tasks into small steps, explicitly teaching each step
Transition Period
helps students shift from school to adulthood, required by IDEA