Literacy Center
a classroom area composed of a library corner and writing area.
Library Corner
a part of a literacy center in which the classroom books are housed. (baskets)
Writing Area
requires a table and chairs, plus colored felt-tipped markers, large and small crayons, pencils, chalk, a chalkboard , and paper in a variety of sizes, kinds, and colors.
Content Area Centers
dedicated to social studies, science, art, music, math, literacy, dramatic play, and block play.
Interdisciplinary Approach
integration of content-area learning with literacy.
Deifferentiation of Instruction
designing instruction to meet the achivement needs of individual children.
Whole-Group Instruction (shared experiences)
introduce informationto the children with th ewhole class together, such as a lesson, discussion,reading a story, or singing songs.
Small-Group Instruction
close interaction occurs between the teacehr and a few children for explicit instruction, based on needs and interests and for assessment.

Individualized Instruction (jone-on-one)
allowing children to work on a one-to-one basis and work individually.
Leveled Reading Books (little books)
the most common materials ued for small-group explicit instruction based on needs.
Instructional Reading Level
the child can read the text with 90 to 95 percent accuracy.
Center Chart
the chart provides several choices for three or four different heterogeneously grouped children. children are placed into the groups for the center of the day.
How to Split up Students

who gets along2. kids who won’t spend the entire time talking3. academic level4. mix their academic level up a little for help5. balance out the groups

Daily 5
children going through centers that meet al of the 5 areas (phonological awareness, decoding, vocabulary, coprehension, and fluency instruction)5-7 minute mini-lessons whole-group then break off into small group.
Family Literacy
the different ways in which family members initiate and use literacy in their daily living.

Running Start
a family literacy program. it is a school-based project, created by RIF and is designed to get books into the hands of first-grade children to encourage and support family literacy.
Parents and Children Together
a nationwide intergenerational family literacy program established by the National Center for Family Literacy. parents who lack a high school diploma and their 3- and 4-year-old children atend school together three to five days a week.
Intergenerational Literacy Initiatives
specifically designed to imporove the literacy development of both adults and children. these programs view family members and children as co-learners and are generally characterized by planned and systematic instruction for both adults and children.
Even Start
a federally funded rogram in which parents must come to meetings and to school to learn how they can play with, read to, and write with their children.
Authentic Assessment
student in his/her own environment.

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defined as assessment activities that represent and reflect the actual learning and instructional activities of the classroom and out-of-school world.

Anecdotal Observation Forms
prepared forms or teacher-made forms may be used for oberving and recording children’s behavior.
meet with a child on a one-to-one bases to assess skills such as reading aloud, discuss a child’s progress, and talk about steps to iprove, instruct, and prescribe activities.
Running Record
Marie Clay created these for observing and recording children’s oral reading and for planning instruction. in this analysis, what a child can do and the types of errors the child makes when reading are recorded.

they also determine the appropriate materaial for instructional purposed and for independient reading.

Independent Level
95 to 100 percent
Instructional Level
90 to 95 percent
Frustration Level
less than 90 percent
Coding System
the teacher has a copy of the passage, and as the child reads, the teacher uses the prescribed coding system to indicate on a running record form whether words are read correctly and what types of errors are made.
M-meaning error
does it make sense? ex: took/pulled
V-visual error
use of phonics but not paying attention to meaning. ex: slepped/spilled
S-structure error
is the syntax correct? ex: went/ran
Informal Reading Inventory (IRIs)
similar to running records but they place a larger emphasis on comprehension.
Portfolio Assessment
provides a way for teachers, children, and parents to collect representative samples.

provides a story of where children have been and what they are capable of doing now, to determine whre they should go from this point forth. the teacher’s portfolio should include work selected by the child, teacher, and parent. ti should represent the best work that children can produce and illustrate difficulties they may be experiencing.

Digital Portfolios
a separate digital folder can be used for each child. ePortfolio.

Standardized Tests
prepared by publishers and are norm referenced; that is they are administered to large numbers of students when they are created to develop norms.
Norm Referenced
the average performance of studens who are tested at a particular grade and age level.
does the test evaluate what is says it tests for and does it match the goals you have for your students?
are the scores accurate and dependable?
Grade Equivalent Scores
raw scores converted into grade-level scores. if a child is in first grade and receives a grade-equivalent score of 2.3, his performance would be ocnsidered above grade level.
Percentile Ranks
raw scores converted into a percentile rank. they tell where the child ranked as compared to all children who took the test at the same grade and age level.
High-Stakes Assessment
major decisions are being made from the results of one test score.
IRA/NAEYC position statement
“Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children.”
what students need to learn at each grade level: reading, writing, listening, speaking, and language.
Common Core State Literacy Standards
Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Language.
Anchor Standards
Preschool Standards