the principle of contiguity states: “whenever two or more sensations occur together often enough, they become associated”
an event that activates behavior.
observable reaction to a stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who discovered classical conditioning. he believed taht learning was classical conditioning.
Classical Conditioning
through the process of classical conditioning, humans and animals can be trained to react involuntarily to a stimulus that previously had no effect or a very different effect on them. the stimulus comes to elicit, or bring forth the response automatically. begins with a stimulus, involuntary. ex: becoming nervous.

B.F. Skinner
Skinner is the theorist thought to be responsible for developing the concept of operant conditioning.

Operant Conditioning
learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents.
A-B-C Formula
Antecedent – those that precede the behaviorBehaviorConsequence – those that follow the behavior (Skinner, operant conditioning)
use of the consequences to strengthen behavior. the process of reinformcement (positive or negative) always involves strengthening behavior.
any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again.
Positive Reinforcement
strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.
Negative Reinforcement
the consequence that strengthens a behavior is the desappearance of a stimulus.

often confused with punishment.

The Premack Principle(Grandma’s Rule)
a high-frequency behavior (preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low frequency behavior (a less-preferred activity). first, do what I want you to do, and then you may do what you want to do!
reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior.

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this takes time and effort. there is no quick fix in shaping a goal or behavior.

Task Analysis
system for breaking down a task into basic skills and sub-skills.

Effective Instruction Delivery
instructions that are concise, clear, and specific and that communicate an expected result. instructions that last longer than 3 minutes are too long and confusing for any age student.
the act of providing an antecedent stimulus, just before a specific behavior is supposed to take place.
when students need help learning to respond to a cue, in an appropriate way, so the cue becomes a discriminative stimulus. provideing an additional cue is called a prompt.

Positive Practice
practicing correct responses immediately after errors.
criticisms for misbehavior.
Social Isolation
removal of a disruptive student.

Group Consequences
rewards or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violation rules of conduct. don’t use group consequences. apply consequences to only those who are causing problems!
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
the application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior (behavior modification).a
Steps of ABA
1. Clearly specify the behavior.2.

Plan specific interventions using antecedents, consequences or both.3. Keep track of the results and modify the plan if necessary.

Functional Behavior Assessment
procedures used to obtain information about antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to dtermine the reason or function of the behavior. usually done by the psychologist in cooperations with the teacher and parents.

Albert Bandura
social learning theory: it empasizes learning through observation of others. he pointed out 2 key dinstinctions between enactive and vicarious learning. “we all may know more than we show”.
Enactive Learning
learning by doing and experiencing the consequences.

Vicarious Learning
learning by observing others, often called observational learning.
drives basic desires, needs, incentives, fears, goals, social pressures, self-confidence, interests, curiosity, beliefs, values, expectations, and many more.
Intrinsic Motivation
the natural human tendencey to seek out and conquer challenges as we pursue personal interests and exercise our capabilities. when we are intrinsically motivated we do not need incentives or punishments, because the activity in itself is satisfying and rewarding.
Extrinsic Motivation
motivation created by external factors, such as rewards and punishments. we are not really interested in the activity for its own sake, we care what it will only gain for us.
Locus of Causality
reason for motivation.

is it internal or external?

5 Approaches to Motivatin
1. Behavioral View2. Humanistic3. Cognitive View4. Social Cognitive View/Expectancy X Value5. Sociocultural View
Behaviroal View
begins witha careful analysis of the rewards and incentives present in the classroom.
an attractive obect or event supplied as a consequence of a particular behavior.
an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior.

being satisfied with yourself/accomplishing your goal. you can do it. it will make you a better person.
Cognitive View
you do it because you want to do it – not because of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation.
Social Cognitive View/Expectancy X Value
you do it for the money, power, prestige, other people; you’re not doing it for yourself. pleasing other people’s expectations others have for you.
Sociocultural View
self-efficacy; the teacher has to believe that his/her students can do it. believing you ca make/help students care.

Abraham Maslow
created Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs; meeting the needs of students; the “needs” guy
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
1. Deficiency Needs – lower level needs, which must be satisfied first. Survival, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem.2. Being Needs – higher level needs, when they are met, a person’s motivation does not cease. Intellectual Achievement(child achieves academically), Aesthetic Achievement (sharing with ohters and not feeling bad/ashamed about it), Self-actualization (fulfilling one’s potential)
Learned Helplessness
the expectation, based on previous experiences witha lack of control, that all one’s efforts will lead to failure. causes three types of deficits.

Motivational Deficit
students expect to fail, so why should they try.
Cognitive Deficit
because these students are pessimistic about learning, therefore they miss opportunities to practice and improce skills.
Affective Problems
depression, anxiety, and listlessness.

Key Strategies That Teachers Should Use to Ensure Genuine Student Progress
1. Begin work at the students’ level and move in small steps.2. Make sure learning goals are clear, specific, and possible to reach in the near future.3. Communicate to students that academic ability is improvable.4.

Teach good problem solving skills.