Student will be able to… with % of accuracy on what activity


Explains why the lesson is important
Task analysis
The process of breaking content down into component parts and making decisions about sequencing the parts

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Lecture= 5%

Reading= 10%

Audio/Visual= 20%

Demonstration= 30%

Discussion Group= 50%

Practice by Doing= 75%

Teach others/Immediate use of Learning= 90%


Academic Learning Time
The amount of time students are successfully engaged
Allocated Time

the amount of time assigned to different content areas

Engaged Time
Amount of time students are attending and involved in learning activities
Classroom Climate
the emotional and academic tone in the classroom
The process of summarizing a topic and preparing for future learning
The process teachers use to attract and maintain students’ attention during a learning activity
Instructional Time
The amount of time available for learning activities
The display of behaviours that are imitated by others
Nonverbal communication

The part of our messages that we convey without spoken words

Personal Teaching Efficacy

The belief that teacher and schools can have an important positive effect on students

Teacher expectations
inferences teachers make about students’ future academic achievements, behaviours and attitudes
Transitional Signal
Communicates that one idea is ending and another is beginning, and explains the link between the two
Bloom’s Taxonomy







Knowledge- Bloom’s
Define, describe, label
Comprehension -Bloom’s
Match, restate, paraphrase
Apply, report, show
Analyze, research, survey
Create, invent, produce
Assess, judge, recommend
Answer given by a student before being recognized by the teacher
Equitable Distribution
Describes a question pattern in which all the students in the class are called on as equally as possible
Cues teachers provide or other questions they ask when students are unable to correctly answer the original question
Questioning Frequency
The number of questions teachers ask over a period of time
Repititious question
asking students to reconsider a question or a point that has been made earlier in the lesson
students beliefs about their capabilities of accomplishing learning tasks.
Classroom management

Teacher thoughts, plans and actions that create an orderly learning environment

Disciplin (management) interventions
Teacher actions designed to eliminate undesirable student behavior
Provides the lesson with strength and direction
Teacher’s ability to keep a lesson flowing smoothly and comfortably while simultaneously maintaining order
The ability to attend to two events at the same time
Describes a lesson’s continuity
Teacher is aware of the total classroom environment and communicates this awareness to students
Social Interaction
Interaction between teacher and students and among themselves
Authentic tasks
Questio nor problem that is real to students and that can serve as the focal point for student investigations
Cooperative Learning
Approach that uses social interactio nto facilitate student growth and development
Peer tutoring
students teaching students
Problem based instruction
collection of integrative teaching strategies that use problems as the focal point, teaching problem-solving skills while developing self-directed learning
instructionarl support teachers provide as students acquire new content

Characteristics of;teacher centered instruction

  • Goal oriented
  • Focused and aligned
  • teacher scaffolding
  • opportunities for practice and feedback

Goal of Direct Instruction-Teaching
teacher presents the knowledge and explicitly directs the learning process.
Zone of proximal development
the learning area in which a students cannot solve a problem or perform a skill alone, but can successfully with the help of the teacher
when concepts and skills are overlearned to the point where they can be used with little conscious effort
when a skill learned in one context can later be applied in a different context
form of modeling in which teachers describe their thinking while working with examples
Guided practice

teacher supplies students additional examples or probs and provides students only enough scaffolding to ensure they can make progress on their own

Lecture Discussion cycle



Comprehension monitoring



Classroom Assessment
Information-gathering and decision-making process
Alternative Assessment
directly measure student performance through ;real-life; tasks

Evaluation- 4 Elements

  1. 1 or more dimensions serve as basis for assessing student performance
  2. Description of each dimension
  3. Scale of values on which dim. is rated
  4. Definitions of each value on the scale

The degree to which the assessment measures what it is suppoesd to measure
The extent to which measurements are consistent

Evaluation is practical- does not consume excessive amount of time and energy

Instructional Alignment
Instruction is aligned with teacher goals, and tests are aligned with instruction and teacher goals
Criterion Referenced Evaluation
Uses pre-established percentages or number total for grades
Norm Referenced Evaluation

Compares students’ performance to each other. Grading on a curve

Correlates of Effective Schools

Strong Instructional Leadership

Clear and Focused School Mission

High Expectations for Students and Staff

Emphasis on Student Attainment of Basic Skills

Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress

Positive Home School Relations

Positive School Climate for Learning