The facility to do something regardless of how an individual acquired the skill, knowledge, or experience.

(Gardener) Possessed by all individuals. Cultivated through environment.

Capacity or potential in an individual to develop musical ability.
An immediate, short-term choice of specific objects or events that can change at any time.
Long-term or permanent commitment to a broad group of objects or events.
Demonstration of ability. Demonstrates what has been accomplished.
Spiral Curriculum
Proposed by Jerome Bruner. Student first learns fundamentals of subject, which are continuously re-applied in more complex ways. Transfer is essential.
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning
Organized thinking processes into three groups (Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective) and from lowest to highest.

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Cognitive: Knowledge/Recall to Evaluation
Affective: Reception to Internalizing Values
Psychomotor: Perception to Origination

Jean Piaget
Theory of Cognitive Development: Children think differently than adults. Humans assimilate new information into schemas. Stage theory.

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal operational.

Four factors of change: biological maturation, activity. social experiences, interaction between cognitive perception and environment.

Zone of Proximal Development: the gape between current level of development and potential level of development.

Proposed by Vygotsky.

Learning occurs through interactions and discovery (children are products of their environment).

Psychosocial Theory of Development
Erik Erikson. Stage theorist. Nonlinear. Individual faces developmental crisis: resolution determines person’s self-image and view of society.
Sociocultural Theory of Learning
Leo Vygotsky- Examine the social world to understand the individual. Children are products of their environment. Not stage theorist. ZPD.
B.F. Skinner
Operant conditioning. Reinforcement/punishment.
Theory of Cognitive Development
Proposed by Piaget. Stage theory. Individuals progress through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Teacher magnitude
An active dramatic human presence: body movement, voice fluctuation and speed, movement around class, eye contact, facial expression.
Effective Teacher Skills
Professional appearance, energetic, enthusiastic, connecting with students, positive, posture, awareness of community standards, inquisitive
Attribution Theory
Describes how an individual explains and justifies success or failure, resulting in an influence on motivation.
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic

Natural personal factor, rewards, punishment.

Erik Erickson
Stage theorist. Devised Psychosocial Theory of Learning (8 nonlinear stages)
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Each individual has seven intelligences: linguistic, logical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.

Every individual has the same potential but they are developed or not based on the environment.

Responsibility for actions and outcomes: teachers are responsible for what the student learns.
Nature vs. Nurture
Environment/parenting/peers/exposure vs. genetics/biology/innate characteristics
State-controlled. Alternative vs. Traditional certification. Teacher shortage.
Stepladder System

Career Ladder System (Apprentice to Novice to Master)

Merit Pay System

Job security contract between teacher and school which makes it difficult for school to fire teacher after probationary period.
Extended Contracts
5-10 year job security compromise between annual contract and tenure
American Federation of Teachers- high standards, standardized testing
National Education Association- Teacher power instead of state boards/politicians
Individualized Education Program