Standardized Tests

  • They are published tests that are administered, scored, and interpreted in a standard manner.
  • Same directions for administering, time, and scoring.

Classroom Assessments

  • Are created and selected by teachers
  • Can take many different forms (multiple choice, T/F, fill in the blank, short answer, essay…) 


  • Critical because teaching involves making many judgments and decisions based on student performance.
  • Parents will often question you regarding their child’s grade.


  • Tells how much, how often, or how well by providing scores, ranks or rating.
  •   Allows a teachers to compare one student’s performance on a particular task, with either a specific standard or performance of other students on the same task.


    • The process of gathering information about a student’s learning. 
    • Can be formal, such as unit tests; or informal, such as observations.
    • Can be designed by classroom teachers, the local school district, state, or national agencies.

Formative Assessment

  • Occurs before or during instruction.
  • It is used to guide the teacher in planning and improving instruction. It helps the student improve in his/her learning!
  • Helps the teacher form instruction.

Summative Assesment

  • Occurs at the end of instruction.
  •  Let’s the teacher and students know their level of accomplishment
  • Always the final ____.

Norm-referenced testing

  • Testing in which scores are compared with the average performance of others.
  • Typical level of performance for a particular group.

What are the 4 types of norm groups?

  1. Classes at your grade level
  2. Your school
  3. School District
  4. Nation  

Criterion-referenced tests

  • When test scores are not compared to those of others, but to a given criterion or standard of performance
  • These are the quizzes and tests that one will design, with a rubric and grading scale. 
  • These tests measure the mastery of specific objectives.
  • The results should show the teacher exactly what the students can and cannot do.

What should all forms of assessment be?
Reliable and valid, with the absense of bias.

Refers to the consistency of the test results. How likely it is that a person will get the same score each time he/she takes the test.

Refers to the extent of which a test measures what it is intended to measure.
Assessment Bias

Refers to “qualities of an assessment instrument that offends or unfairly penalize a group of students because of the student’s gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, or other  group-defining characteristic.”

Three types of standardized tests

  1. Achievement
  2. Diagnostic
  3. Aptitude 

Achievement Tests

  • Used to test how much a student has learned in a particular content area.
  • Ohio Academic Achievement, Iowa Test of Basic Skills…

Diagnostic Tests
Used to identify special learning problems, including weaknesses in the learning process.
Aptitude Tests

  • Used to measure abilities over a long period of time, and to predict future learning performance.
  • SAT, ACT… 


  • Is the average of a group of scores.
  •  To calculate: add up all of the scores and divide by the total number of scores.

The middle score in a group of scores.
The score that occurs most often.
Percentile Rank Scores

These scores show the percentage of students in a normed sample, who scored at, below, or above a particular raw score.

Grade Equivalent Scores

  • Are obtained from separately normed samples for each grade level.
  • They are reported in numbers such as: 3.8, 5.4, 11.2. The whole number represents the grade and the decimal the month.

Criterion-referenced grading

  • The grade represents a list of accomplishments.
  • If clear objectives have been set for the course, the grade may represent a certain number of objectives met satisfoctorily.
  • Criteria for each grade is generally spelled out in advance (syllabus). 

Norm-referenced grading
Occurs when the major influence on a grade is the student’s standing in comparison with others in the class.
What is the value of failing?

  1. We must encourage students to reach beyond their intellectual grasp and allow them the privilege of learning from mistakes.
  2. There must be a tolerance for error-making in every classroom, and gradual success, rather than continual success must become the yardstick by which learning is judged.
  3. Students whose learning histories  have caused them to believe that excellence can be achieved with minimual effort do not learn to expend effort, and yet perceive that high grades are an entitlement for them.


Retained children are more likely male members of minority groups. Living in poverty, and less likely to have participated in early childhood program.

Communication with Parents…

  • A very important part of your success as a teacher, will be communicating with parents on a regular basis.
  • Parent/Teacher conferences should not be your only communication with parents.

Authentic Assessment
Applying a real life situation in the classroom.