Adult Learning Theory- Theorist and Def.
K.P. Cross; consists of two classes of variables: personal characteristics and situational characteristics. (no research to support it)
Andragogy-Theorist and Def.
Malcom Knowles; instruction for adults needs to focus more on the process and less on the content being taught. Strategies such as case studies, role playing, simulations, and self-evaluation are most useful. Instructors adopt a role of facilitator or resource rather than lecturer or grader.
Experiential Learning Theory-Theorist and Def.
Carl Rogers; two types of learning: cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant)
Information Processing Theory-Theorist and Def.
George A. Miller; The first concept is “chunking” and the capacity of short term memory.
Second concept is TOTE should replace the stimulus-response as the basic unit of behavior.
Multiple Intelligences-Theorist and Def.
Howard Gardener; seven primary forms of intelligence: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal (e.g., insight, metacognition) and interpersonal (e.g., social skills).
Script Theory-Theorist and Def.
R. Schank; primarily intended to explain language processing and higher thinking skills
Social Learning-Theorist and Def.
Albert Bandura; emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others
observational learning are: 1-Attention, including modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement)
2-Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal)
3-Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback
4-Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement.
Situated Learning-Theorist and Def.
J. Lave; a general theory of knowledge acquisition
Attribution Theory-Theorist and Def.
B. Weiner; A three-stage process underlies an attribution:
1-the person must perceive or observe the behavior
2-then the person must believe that the behavior was intentionally performed
3-then the person must determine if they believe the other person was forced to perform the behavior (in which case the cause is attributed to the situation) or not
Cognitive Dissonance Theory-Theorist and Def.
Leon Festinger; there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions
Constructivist Theory-Theorist and Def.
Jerome Bruner; earning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge
Adult Learning Theory-Tenets (4)
1-Adult learning programs should capitalize on the experience of participants.
2-Adult learning programs should adapt to the aging limitations of the participants.
3-Adults should be challenged to move to increasingly advanced stages of personal development.
4-Adults should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of learning programs.
Andragogy-Tenets (4)
1-Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
2-Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.
3-Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
4-Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
Andragogny- Design of learning (4)
1-Adults need to know why they need to learn something
2-Adults need to learn experientially,
3-Adults approach learning as problem-solving
4-Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.
Experiential Learning Theory-Tenets (4)
1-Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student
2-Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum
3-Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low
4-Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive.
Experiential Learning Theory- Occurs when… (3)
1-the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction
2-it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems
3-self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success
Information Processing Theory-Tenets (3)
1-Short term memory (or attention span) is limited to seven chunks of information.
2-Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognitive process.
3-Behavior is hierarchically organized (e.g., chunks, TOTE units).
Multiple Intelligences-Tenets (3)
1-Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.
2-Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence.
3-Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
Script Theory-Tenets (5)
1-Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction.
2-All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primative acts.
3-All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
4-Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal/written discourse.
5-Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans.
Situated Learning-Tenets (2)
1-Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context, i.e., settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
2-Learning requires social interaction and collaboration.
Social Learning-Tenets (3)
1-The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
2-Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
3-Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Attribution Theory-Tenet (3)
1-Attribution is a three stage process: (1) behavior is observed, (2) behavior is determined to be deliberate, and (3) behavior is attributed to internal or external causes.
2-Achievement can be attributed to (1) effort, (2) ability, (3) level of task difficulty, or (4) luck.
3-Causal dimensions of behavior are (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory-Tenets (2)
1-Dissonance results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory.
2-Dissonance can be eliminated by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
How to eliminate cognitive dissonance (3)
1-reduce the importance of the dissonant beliefs
2-add more consonant beliefs that outweigh the dissonant beliefs
3-change the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent.
Constructivist Theory-Tenets (3)
1-Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
2-Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization).
3-Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).
Constructivist Theory’s 4 major aspects
1-predisposition towards learning
2-the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner
3-the most effective sequences in which to present material
4-the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments.
Transformational Theory-Theorist and Def.
jack Mezirow; two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships. Communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires
Transformational Theory-Tenets (4)
1-Adult exhibit two kinds of learning: instrumental (e.g., cause/effect) and communicative (e.g., feelings)
2-Learning involves change to meaning structures (perspectives and schemes).
3-Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about content, process or premises.
4-Learning can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives.