Fitting new information into existing schemes.
Altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information.
The search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment.
The brain’s tendency to remain somewhat adaptable or flexible.
a nerve cell of the central nervous system.
nerve fibers that extend from a neuron and receive the impulses transmitted from the other neurons.
the point at which the axon of one neuron meets the dendrites of another neuron.
Transient Exuberance
the great increase in the number of dendrites and synapses that occur in an infant’s brain over the first two years of life.
Genetically programmed naturally occurring changes over time.
appreciation of beauty (the arts).
Ability to think through a series of steps, then mentally reverse the steps and return to the starting point.
Arranging of objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.
Adolescent Ego-Centrism
Assumption that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings and concerns.
Object Permanence
The understanding that objects have a separate, permanent existence.
Collective Monologue
Form of speech in which children in a group talk but do not really interact or communicate.
The principle that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another.
Assuming that others experience the world the way you do.
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain cortex. This occurs soon after birth. The left hemisphere specializes in language and the right side is prominent in spatial and visual processing.
Giving information, prompts, reminders, and encouragement at the right time and in the right amount.
Zone of Proximal Development
level just above the child’s capability level where she or he can accomplish things if he/she has assistance.
The rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture.
The order of words in phrases or sentences.
Heritage Language
The language spoken in the student’s home or by members of the family.
Metalinguistic Awareness
Understanding about one’s own use of language.
Physical Development
changes in body structure and function over time.
Cognitive Development
gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
Social Development
changes over time in the way that we relate with others.
Language Development
often grouped with cognitive. This includes speech, writing, listening, and reading.
General Principles of Development
1. People develop at different rates.
2. Development is relatively orderly, basically the same sequence.
3. Development takes place gradually.
Focusing on more than one aspect at a time.
a. Ages: 0-2 years
b. Characteristics:
i. Begins to make use of imitation , memory and thoughts.
ii. Begins to recognize items/objects and do not cease to exist when hidden.
iii. Moves from reflex actions to goal-directed activity.
a. Ages 2-7 years.
b. Characteristics:
i. Gradually develops use of language and ability to think.
ii. Difficulty seeing others point of view.
Concrete Operational
a. Ages 7-11 years
b. Characteristics:
i. Able to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion.
ii. Able to understand Law of Conservation.
Formal Operational
a. Ages: 11-Adult
b. Characteristics:
i. Able to solve abstracts problems.
ii. Becomes more scientific in thinking.
iii. Develop concerns about social issues and identity.