Positive Correlation
two factors increase or decrease together
Negative Correlation
increases in one factor are related to decreases in the other
orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to death
Zone of Proximal Development
The difference between what a child can do on his own and what he can do with the assistance of a more capable other
Theory of Mind
understanding that people are people too with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
the beginning of self-control and self-confidence as children begin to assume responsibility for self-care
the inability to do something specific
I. D. E. A.
guarantees free, appropriate education for all students with disabilities who participate in special education
socioeconomic status
relative standing in society based on income, power, background, and prestige
English Language Learners (ELL)
students whose primary language is not English
positive reinforcement
strengthens the behavior it follows
negative reinforcement
strengthens the behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the desired behavior occurs
maintenance rehearsal
repeating information over and over in your head
elaborative rehearsal
connecting information with something you already know
critical thinking
evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, evidence, and solution
knowledge about our own thinking processes
emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information
cooperative learning
requires students to work together to attain a shared goal
a belief or confidence that one can reach a certain goal
cognitive behavior modification
focuses on self-talk to regulate behavior
intrinsic motivation
motivation created by internal factors
learned helplessness
people who come to believe that events and outcomes are mostly uncontrollable
time on task
time spent actively engaged in the learning task at hand
classroom management
techniques used to maintain a positive, productive learning environment
convergent questions
there is only one right answer
divergent questions
there are many possible answers