Applied Research
apply or test theory and evaluate its usefulness (includes evaluation for decision-making purposes)
Basic Research
Develop or enhance a theory
Causal-comparative/ex-post facto research
Aimed at making a cause-effect claim.

The alleged cause is not under the control of the researcher

Correlational Research
Given a value of -1.00 to +1.00

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Determines whether and to what degree two variables are related

Dependent Variable
Something that changes with respect to something else. Does not happen on its own, regardless of other variables.
Descriptive research
Survey research

Collecting data in order to answer questions about the current status of the subject or topic of study

Educational Research
the systematic application of a family of methods that are employed to provide trustworthy information about educational problems.
Experimental Research
Aimed at making a cause-effect claim.

The researcher controls the alleged independent variable.

It is the selection of participants from a single pool and the ability to apply different treatments or programs to participants with similar characteristics that separates this from causal-comparative research.

External Validity
authenticity of the data, the extent to which something can be generalized beyond the experiment itself.

Quantitative studies can be generalized to the population the sample was drawn from

Qualitative: Provide enough description so others can determine whether or not it’s applicable, but if you gather more and more data, you may find a trend

General process for inquiry
1. Recognize a topic to study
2. Describe and execute procedures to collect information about the topic
3. Analyze the collected data.
4. State the results and implications based on the analysis of the data
Historical Research
Studying, understanding and interpreting past events.
Independent Variable
Something that has already happened and cannot be manipulated: sex of a student, time, age
Internal validity
accuracy and usefulness of data: the extent to which the experimental design can be trusted to reveal the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable

1. Cause precedes the effect
2. The cause and effect are related
3. there are no plausible alternative explanations for the covariance.

Primary Sources
first-hand information: eyewitness reports, original documents, speech recording
Qualitative research methods
Case study: look at particular part of schooling
Groundwork: essence of a group that they all have in common

1. Over long periods of time
2. Researchers rely on themselves as the main vehicle for data collection
3. Use interpretation to analyze data collection
4. Employ expressive language and voice in their descriptions and explanations
5. Seek depth of perspective in their studies
6. Judged in terms of believability.

Quantitative research questions
Cause-effect relationship? No

Relationship or prediction?
Yes: Correlational
No: Descriptive

Cause-effect relationship? Yes.

Independent variable manipulated?
Yes: Experimental
No: Causal-comparative

Qualitative Research Questions
Largely inductive

holistic and process-oriented

Inductive reasoning
based on developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences (Qualitative)
Deductive reasoning
based on developing specific predictions from general principles, observations, or experiences (Quantitative)
Criterion Referenced
Assessment based on how much of the material you know, how much of the material you have mastered

Teacher tests, driving tests.

errors of measurement
Reflect the effects of chance factors on the test scores
Grade-equivalent scores
Predictive power: if a student from that grade took this same test, we would expect they would get the same score as this student did.

For example, if a fourth grader got a grade equivalent of a 7.5, we would expect that a seventh grader who had 5 months of instruction would get the same score as that 4th grader did on that same exam.

Internal consistency
Relates the test-takers’ performance on each item to their performance on all other items. Look at pair of halves and they should have the same score at all of them.

High internal consistency means that all of the items on the test reflect the same underlying characteristic… ??

Non-standardized tests
make little or no attempt to standardize and make sure the test is valid and reliable

Teacher tests
Textbook tests

Scores based on curve: how well did you do in relation to the others who took the exam?

ACT, GRE, very large lecture course

Observed score
True score + errors of measurement (real scores)
Percentile Rank
How many people you did better than on this exam: 45%= you did better on this exam than 45% of the people that took it.
Standardized test
Have empirically documented data on their effectiveness. Have a high degree of standardization.
True Score
What students would get without errors in measurement. Can’t know what this is!
Alternate forms reliability
Similar test to same person: should get similar scores
Face validity
Type of content validity

check to see that the content is covered (Face value)

same amount of types of questions as proportional to time spent in class on topic

Split-half reliability
take the whole test, score two halves. Should be similar scores. (But you have to be able to pair up similar questions together)
Test-retest reliability
Same test to same person at a later date. Should get similar scores, as long as no further instruction happens on the topic

Ways to improve it

Measure of consistency

Add more items
Avoid questions that are too easy and too hard
Wider range of abilities taking the test
People taking the test have similar backgrounds
More objective scoring
Straight-forward, clearly worded questions
Good directions
Learners are well-rested, calm, well and taking the test seriously

measure of how well it tests what it is supposed to test
Concurrent validity
Type of criterion validity: the extent to which an assessment instrument is capable of predicting criteria that have been measured at the same point in time that the instrument was administered

Vocational Assessment: If the test is a measure of vocational interests in police work, police officers should score well

Consequential validity
Refers to the use of the test: what happens as a result of this test?

Teacher effectiveness.

Convergent validity
Scores should be the same as the scores for the same types of exams. Also, same scores for individually administered and group administered
Discriminant Validity
Different scores for different tests
Predictive validity
The extent to which an assessment instrument predicts criteria that are measured after the instrument was administered.

Good scores on a calculus exam should predict good scores in physics.

Deci & Ryan
Self-determinization Theory
Focus on Social needs and motivation
Adds psychological needs to Maslow
ARCS model needed to motivate people
Hierarchy of needs

Belongingness and Love

You are born with certain abilities that you need to work at to achieve. An IQ test, for example, is a measure of ability.
ARCS model
Attention: gaining and sustaining
Relevance: meet needs and satisfy personal desires, including the accomplishment of personal goals
Confidence: provide opportunities for success. Scaffolding, helping students achieve things that are just barely above their abilities
Satisfaction: opportunities to use newly acquired skills or knowledge in meaningful ways
Attribution Theory
Attempts to determine the cause of success or failure: LATE: Luck, Ability, Task, Effort (You want the E)

Depending on what students attribute their success or failure to will change their motivation in the future.

“Well, I’m just dumb” does not motivate a student because it is beyond their control and stable.

Stable v. Unstable
Internal v. External
Controllable v. Uncontrollable

Continuing motivation (volition)
Acting with a sense of choice. “I acted on my own volition”
Do something so that others think more highly of you (extrinsic)
Ego involvement and motivation
I do it because I have to, not because I want to.
Entity and incremental theories of intelligence
Entity: see your abilities as fixed
Incremental: your abilities can change intelligence
Expectancy x value theory
If I succeed once, I expect to succeed again, but I have to value the success.
extrinsic motivation
engaging in an activity that has some sort of consequence separate from the activity itself.

Giving out candy for answering questions, for example.

feedback sources
Enactive mastery, Vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, physiological and psychological state
fixed v malleable
If you believe that your abilities are fixed, you have no motivation to learn, whereas if your abilities are malleable, you can actually do something to learn.

Performance goals are fixed, whereas learning goals are malleable.

goal setting -proximal v distal
Shorter time frames are easier to attain.
Having a little bit of confidence, but not having enough to try.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow: you can’t focus on learning if you are hungry. BUT, it’s not all or nothing. You can have most of your needs met to move on to the next level.
intrinsic motivation
motivated by happiness or contented-ness that activity gives me
locus of control
internally deal with what you can control, even if you have things that you can’t.
One of LATE in attribution theory. Don’t want students to think that they succeeded because of luck, because that means that they won’t try again. They don’t attribute their success to their own efforts.
outcome expectations
A judgment of what will happen from a goal.
constantly attributing action to an external source. It makes it much harder to intrinsically motivate.
personal causation/self-agency
E part of LATE, we want students to attribute their success to their own efforts.
praise and motivation
praise is positive when task is not intrinsically motivating

should be specific for meaning

don’t praise for things that are super easy-can show that students have low goals

rewards and intrinsic motivation
rewards often undermine intrinsic motivation. Rewards have to be part of the activity itself. Not candy for homework
person’s beliefs about their own abilities and skills
self-regulation (motivation)
setting and motivating for your own goals
self-determination theory
regulations that are autonomous and controlled by self are more motivating than those that are controlled externally
task factors (easy v difficult)
T part of LATE. We don’t want students to think that they succeeded because the task was easy, but rather that they attribute their success to their effort
engaging in the task for the task itself
intrinsically motivated
Classical conditioning
Involuntary responses
Operant conditioning: more active
Deals with behavior, but not just physiological responses: voluntary responses


Law of Effect (Skinner based his ideas on this)
Classical Conditioning
a neutral stimulus involuntarily and biologically elicits an unconditioned response

The bell makes me salivate

Unconditioned Response
involuntary response (salivating)
Unconditioned Stimulus
elicits an involuntary and biological response
Neutral Stimulus
elicits no response without conditioning
Conditioned stimulus
the same as the neutral stimulus, but with conditioning, produces unconditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
same as the UCR, but elicited with conditioning
Higher order conditioning
1. meat = salivate
2. meat + bell = salivate
3. bell = salivate
4. bell + clicker = salivate
5. clicker = salivate
Baby Albert

If I get you to salivate with a bell, maybe every bell-like sound will make you salivate.

Extinction (classical and operant conditioning)
After a while, without reinforcement, the conditioning effect will die off.
Law of Effect
If I like something, I will continue to try to do it. If I don’t, I will avoid it.
Operant Conditioning
a behavior that is emitted by an organism

behavior is more likely to reoccur if it has been rewarded and less likely to reoccur if its punishment has been adversive

set the conditions for responding BUT consequences of the response are critical in determining whether it ever happens again
Contingency contract
An instructional application that may make use of both behavior modification and instructional objectives

Sets goal, conditions of achievement and consequences of attainment

Discriminative Stimulus
A cue for the learner to emit a response
Contingent Stimulus
Needs to be immediate. Reinforces desired behavior by reacting to the response
Operant response
a voluntary response to a stimulus
Baseline of behavior
Need a measure of the current frequency of the problem behavior so that you can set goals and keep track of progress
Positive Reinforcement
Give something positive for positive response.

Example: You get a piece of candy for turning in your homework or verbal praise for staying in your seat

Negative Reinforcement
Take away something bad for positive response. Remove the aversive stimulus.

Don’t have to take the final if you have an A in the class already.

Give something bad for a bad response.

Go to jail for a crime.

Reinforcement Removal
Take away something good for a bad response.

Fine you money for parking in the handicap spot.

Primary reinforcer
a reinforcer whose reinforcement value is biologically determined (Food)
Conditioned reinforcer
reinforcer that acquires its reinforcement through association with a primary reinforcer (gold stars, money)

Special case: praise (social reinforcer)

Premack principle
The procedure of making high-frequency behaviors contingent upon low-frequency behaviors in order to strengthen the low-frequency behavior

Grandma rule: “You can watch TV as soon as you finish your homework”

Sometimes a response is not evident until we ask for it.

Discriminant stimulus.

Learned Helplessness
The passive acceptance of events seemingly beyond one’s control

a long history of punishment

Response cost
removal of reinforcement contingent on behavior

LIke reinforcement removal

remove the learner, for a limited time, from the circumstances reinforcing the undesired behavior
Positive reinforcement for the learner for successive approximations to a goal behavior

“Good job! You are holding your clarinet correctly!” (Ignoring the bad tone or rhythm)
Teach all at once, and reinforce good parts

establish complex behaviors made up of discrete, simpler behaviors already known by the learner

Like teaching a dance.
Forward or backward chaining.

Discriminations are often learned by a behavior being reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and being punished in the presence of another.

Fading out discriminative stimuli used to initially establish a desired behavior. (Desired behavior still occurs without the stimulus)

fixed ratio schedule
requires the learner to make so many responses before they are given reinforcement
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement is given after some fixed interval of time
variable ratio schedule
Reinforcement given at random numbers of responses centered around an average. This is the most effective schedule.
variable interval schedule
reinforcement given at random intervals of time, centered around an average.
program of behavioral change
1. Baseline and goals
2. Determine appropriate reinforcers
3. Select procedures for changing behavior
4. Implement
5. Evaluate and Revise as necessary
contingencies of reinforcement
group v. individual
token economy
tokens serve as conditioned reinforcers that can later be exchanged for objects or privileges
instructional objective
1. desired behavior
2. conditions under which behavior occurs
3. criteria (how well behavior is performed)
Social Cognitive Theory

1. The learning process requires both the cognitive processing and decision-making skills of the learner
2. learning is a three way interlocking relationship among the environment, personal factors and behavior
3. learning results in the acquisition of verbal and visual codes of behavior that may or may not later be performed

Attentional processes
can’t learn new behavior unless the learner attends to the information accurately
direct reinforcement
reinforcement experienced directly by an individual
enactive attainment
“Mastery Experience” helps students with self-efficacy because they can do something complex well, if split into smaller components
Functional Value
The observer expects the same reinforcement measures for them as are expressed to the model

the model’s continued reinforcement for a behavior predicts success for the observer

live model
observer has direct contact with the model
use symbols, people transform experiences into internal models that can guide future actions
motivational processes
direct, self and vicarious reinforcement

anticipation of reinforcement for a particular behavior motivates a learner

motor reproduction processes
Recognizes that you don’t have to respond immediately to have learned something

includes the selection and organization of responses at the cognitive level, followed by their execution.

perceived self-efficacy
involves self-appraisal of abilities
physiological state
influences self-efficacy

If you are sick, fatigued, etc, you are less likely to think that you can do something.

reciprocal determination
effects that are produced by events rather than by a prior set of causal external factors
representational systems
memory codes of observed behaviors
response-outcome expectancy
a belief that a particular behavior will lead to a particular outcome
retentional processes
responsible for the symbolic coding of the behavior into visual or verbal codes and the storage of codes in memory
one can successfully execute the behavior require to produce the desired outcome

1. Prior experiences
2. Similar individuals experiences
3. verbal persuasion
4. physiological state

independent of the consequences delivered by society.

Individual performance standards

symbolic model
pictorial representation of behavior
verbal descriptions
learners store information about the modeled behavior in verbal descriptions, as well as in mental images
verbal persuasion
influences self-efficacy

If someone tells you you will succeed, you are more likely to think that you will.

vicarious experiences
associated with the observed behavior of others
vicarious punishment
punishment associated with the observed behavior of others

Inhibitory effect
Devalues the model’s status since a functional behavior was not transmitted

vicarious reinforcement
reinforcement associated with the observed behavior of others

Arousal of the emotional responses of pleasure and satisfaction of the observer

1. a model is reinforced for the execution of a particular behavior
2. the observer’s performance of the behavior must increase

meaningful learning
Gagne’s theory of instruction
1. taxonomy of learning outcomes
-verbal information
-intellectual skills
-cognitive strategies
-motor skills

2. conditions for learning
-internal (individual characteristics)
-external (environmental characteristics)

3. events of instruction
-gain attention
-inform learners of objectives
-stimulate recall of prior knowledge
-present content
-provide “learning guidance”
-elicit performance
-provide feedback
-assess performance
-enhance retention and transfer

adding more and more experience or connections to an idea to strengthen it
Jeopardy computer competitor

Start out as declarative knowledge (schema) and then make it to procedural knowledge (productions)

sensory auditory memory lasts longer than visual because you’ve got to learn speech
when tasks are overlearned or sources of information become habitual so that their attention requirements are minimal.

driving a car, knitting, reading words (rather individual words)

when you find that something doesn’t work with your schema, you explicitly look at your schema to see what is wrong
Gestalt idea that if something is unfinished, individuals will tend to fill it in using prior knowledge
controlled process
controlled processes require more attention than others
dual encoding
visual and verbal processes for encoding happen at the same time
elaborative rehearsal
when you practice things in your own words, or elaborate with examples or connections, you learn it better
the process of relating incoming information to concepts and ideas already in memory in a such a way that the new information is memorable
encoding specificity
if you encode something in a specific way, you will only be able to retrieve it with that specific cue
episodic memory
memory of specific events
feature analysis
certain specific features are stored in memory for each particular category and the extent to which something matches those features puts it in that category
failure to encode (never knew it)
failure to retrieve (didn’t know it well enough)
interference (older ideas or newer ideas)
fostering encoding
1. Provide organized information
2. Lots of practice (varied)
3. Use strategies
4. Metacognition
what we do when our senses fail to show us the whole picture: we fill it in based on context
Long-term memory
permanent storehouse of information
memory capacity
can only process so many things in working memory
mental models
schema +

schema + knowledge of the world (working memory, use to direct behavior and encode)

knowing what you know, when you know, and what you need to know
network models
concept maps
neural networks
Brain structure with neurons and axons
knowledge is equated with truth and absolute
past experience
effects what you see (stroop effect, eyewitness testimony)
pattern recognition
matching the incoming information to the appropriate template in memory
primacy effect
we tend to remember things that we learn first in a list
if-then rules (Flow chart)
prototype model
we have particular prototypical ideas about things, and if something mostly fits the prototype, it is categorized together with the prototype
In Network models, if things are closer together in the network, it takes less time to assess the sentence.

“A canary is a canary” versus “A canary has skin”

remember something without answers available to choose from (essay question)
recency effect
you are more likely to remember things that you just learned
answers already generated, just need to choose the best one
repetition that serves to maintain the information in the working memory
schema doesn’t work at all, need to abandon it and find a new one
Taking things from LTM for a response
general essence of some concept
general how-to of a situation

(what to do when you enter a doctor’s office)

the learner’s ability to select and process certain information while simultaneously ignoring other information
1. Similarity between task and distracter
2. task complexity
3. personal differences
4. meaning distracter has for the learner
semantic memory
general information stored in memory that can be recalled independently of how it was learned
sensory memory
functions to hold information very briefly, just long enough for the information to be processed
If distracters are similar to the task, it makes it harder to focus on the task. (Selective attention)
stroop effect
Written out colors printed in different colors.
template matching
assumes that mental copies of environmental stimuli are stored in memory
implicit means to use a schema (use as long as there are no problems with a schema)
schema works mostly, just need to tweak it
some things can only be represented in memory by words (abstract terms like freedom)
working memory
further processing is carried out to make information ready for long term storage or response
short-term memory
another way to say working memory