Piaget
stages of development, culturally invariant, qualitative change in cognitiondevelopment precedes learning
Accommodation
existing schemes or operations must be modified to account for a new experience
Animism
endow inanimate objects with human qualities
Assimilation
put what we experience into our existing scheme
Circular reactions
repitition of an action that produces pleasant stimulation (sensorimotor)
Computational Analysis
automatizationfeedback mechanismself-monitoring
Computational Model
assumes that with additional experience, the cognitive system modifies itself to reflect increasingly abstract rules
Concrete Operational Period
7 to 11 yearsperforms true mental operations (Conservation, reversibility) and sovles concrete problems in a logical fashionhas difficulty thinking hypothetically and systematically considering all aspects of a problem
Conservation of quantity/numbermass/volume/density
start with number, then mass and volume density is last
Deduction
logic
Egocentrism
focused on self
Equilibration
master developmental process encompassing both accommodation and assimilationmotivation from disequilibrium
Formal Operational Period
11 years +solves abstract problems in systematic and logical fashionreasons hypothetically and often develops concerns over social issues
Framework Theory
initial mental models are probably incorrect, they must change over time to become more accurate representatinos
Induction
generalize about scenarios
Internalization
preoperationalmakes experiences internal to self
Logical-Mathematical Knowledge
abstract and must be inventedcomes from actions on objects
Mental Combinations
two dimensions at a time
Negogation
metathinking about questions
Neo-Piagetian
consistent with two basic assumptions of Piaget:children think about any particular topic in only one way at most points in developmenta major goal of deveopmental theory should be identifying the way of thinking used by children at particular stages
Object constancy or permanance
knows the object is there even if they can’t see it
Operational Thinking
concrete operationalability to hold an idea in one’s head while problem solving
Physical Knowledge
(empirical knowledge)Knowledge about objects in the world, which can be gained through their perceptual properties
Preoperational Period
2 to 7 yearsacquires the semiotic functionengages in symbolic play and language gamesdifficulty seeing another person’s point of viewthought and communication are egocentricreason from a focus on one perceptual dimension on problems
Propositional logic
if then logic
Pseudoconcepts
real (adult) concepts are used, but they don’t understand the meanings
Reflex
mechanical response to stimuli
Reversible Thinking
concrete operationalvolume of air breathe out= volume breathed in
Scheme
units of generalized behavior that provide the basis for mental operationsschema is a passive mode of organization whereas SCHEME is an active mode of organization
Siegler overlapping waves theory
each stage of development isn’t discreet and it doesn’t have a clean cut from the next. the rate of change tends to be gradual, and children continue old approaches long after new, more sophisticated approaches become part of their toolkit
sensorimotor period
birth to 2 years PERCEPTIONmodifies reflexes to make them more adaptivebecomes goal-directed in behavior, moving from concrete to abstractbegins to mentally represent objects and events
seriation
sorting of objects due to a criterion
social knowledge
culture-specific and can be learned only from other people within one’s cultural grouplearned from interactions with other people
thinking hypothetically
deducing things, looking to the future
transductive logic
According to Jean Piaget’s theories on cognitive development, transductive reasoning is the primary form of reasoning used during the preoperational stage of development. This stage occurs approximately from the ages of 2-7. Transductive reasoning employs the following reasoning: “If A causes B today, then A always causes B.

transitivity
If A>B and B>C, then A>C.
aptitude treatment interactions
students with different aptitudes respond differently to different types of instruction
big 5 personality traits
Openness to experiencesConscientiousExtroversionAgreeablenessNeuroticismWant somewhere in the middle instead of one or the other
crystallized intelligence
declarative knowledgemay be a product of fluid knowledge, automaticity, stable and increases with age, content knowledge specific to domains,
fluid intelligence
how we think changesproblem-solvinggenearl ability to apply to new situationsefficiency in new domainsdecreases with age
general intelligence
ability to learn quicklycomplexity in problemsadapt to new situationsaccummulation of new knowledge
IQ
mental age
interests
enduring traits= not totally stable, but closepreferences for certain activities, hobbies, jobs
semiotic function
able to mentally represent objects and events (evidenced by imitation in play)
personality
enduring tendencies to behave in certain ways
specific intelligence
verbal comprehensionword fluencynumber facilityspacial visualizationassociative memoryperceptual speedreasoning
Bruner
inside-out versus outside-in
Vygotsky
learner can do alone what they previously needed support to do
Actual Development
takes culture into account
Concept attainment
learners acquire concepts by setting forth hypthoeses and testing them
constructivist conditions for learning
1. complex, realistic, relevant environments2. social negotiation3. multiple perspectives4. ownership in learning5. self-awareness of the knowledge construction process
constructivist learning goals
retention, understanding and active use of knowledge and skills
discovery learning
piaget no constraints, just supply the environmentall forms of obtaining knowledge for oneself with one’s own mind
enactive representations
mode of representing past events through motor responses
iconic representations
summarize events by the selective organization of percepts and images
inside out
takes what internal concepts they have and impose them on experiences
interpretivist
lots of ideas are viable
interpsychological plane
from environment into self
intrapsychological plane
within self, internalizes
learner-centered instruction
based on learners
learner-centered principles
diversity, cognitive and metacognitive, motivational, social
mediational view
individual actively modifies the stimulus as a part of the process of responding to it
multiple perspectives
learn to classify and differentiate
narrative thinking
tell story to affirm connections with family members
outside in
takes experiences and imposes them on internal concepts
ownership
autonomy
potential development
ZPD, what they can do with supports
scaffolding
big goal into little steps
self-awareness
metathinking
social negotiation
learners test their own ideas with their peers
spiral curriculum
symbolic representation
a symbol system represents things by design features that include remoteness and arbitrariness
teacher-centered instruction
based on teacher
viability
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the higher level with supports
Erikson
8 stages of development, each stage has critical moment and if society deals with it correctly, they get the right balance of + and –
8 stages of development (crisis, age)
trust v mistrust: hopeautonomy v shame and doubt: willinitiative v.

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guilt: purposeindustry v. inferiority: competenceidentity v. role confusion: identity/fidelityintimacy v. isolation: lovegenerativity v. stagnation: need to be neededego integrity v. despair: wisdom

identity achievement
make choices and experiencing them
identity diffusion
no firm direction
identity foreclosure
don’t experiment, but commit to goals
moratorium
delay in commitment to choices
Advance organizer
anchored instruction
apprenticeship
case studies
case-based learning
cognitive apprenticeship
concept attainment
concept map
cooperative/collaborative learning
demonstration
direct instruction/teaching
discussion groups
drill
goal-based scenario
guided discovery
inquiry teaching
jigsaw
journaling
learning centers/modules/stations
lecture
modeling
portfolio
problem-based learning
reciprocal teaching
role play
service learning
simulation
socratic thinking
SQ3R
types of teacher questions
webquest
KWL
Affordance
the impact of an environment on an organism’s behavior, or how it lives in the environment (scripts)
authentic activity
recognize affordances from one context to another
boundary
in two contexts, but working at both. brokers between
community of practice
what others do affects you in the communityPractice fields: aren’t real, but a contrived learning opportunity, try to make authentic as possible
conceptual knowledge
knowledge of ideas
distributed cognition
everyday cognition
inbound
invested and headed towards participation in a community
insider
you’ve gotten into the community
learning community
what others do affects youaffords learning
legitimate peripheral participation
can participate outside a community and have it be valuable
mutually negotiated goal
community of practice has these
outbound
leaving community
peripheral
always excluded from a community
semiosis
mediating there are objects in the world, but our knowledge is based on our perceptions/experiences
unit of analysis
neuron
building blocks of brain, uses electrical and chemical signaling to transmit and receive information
dendrite
fingers of neuron, receives signal from axon
axon
arm of neuron, transmits info from neuron cell body to dendrites of other neuron
synapse
connection between dendrite and axon-not touching, but can transfer things/info via chemicals
cell assembly
network of neurons (rather than a single one) contributes to knowledge/memory
cerebral cortex
motor, sensoryouter layer
frontal lobe
planning and execution of behaviorlast to develop, front
occipital lobe
Visionfirst to develop, back
parietal lobe
attention crown
temporal lobe
auditory learningon sides: ear muffs
hippocampus
learning and memory: makes new memories, but does not store themstress kills cells in hippocampus
attention
Types of attention neurons/synapses are distributed
types of memory
types of memory look the same in the brain but they’re in different placesNo “Grandmother cell”
language
different pieces of language distributed across brainL brain, frontal brain
critical/sensitive periods
The times when someone can learn a particular task/skill is not set in stone, rather, there are particular times in development that people are more likely to have an easier timewindow of opportunity
experience expectant
genetically programmed to be sensitive to particular stimuli: must be experience for these to develop
experience dependent
get connections through experiences (multi-purpose neurons) Not genetically predetermined
plasticity
connections/knowledge is plyable or changeableHowever, the amount to which you can learn or change your ideas decreases with age.

synapotgenesis
mylination
thicker and thicker fatty coating on connections when they are strengthened. the thicker the mylination, the quicker the responserubber on outside of wiring
modularity
There are distinct types of knowledge/skills in the brain and they are correlated in specific places in the brain
7 (+2) intelligences
MusicalBodily-KinestheticLogical-MathematicalSpatialLinguisticInterpersonalIntrapersonalTwo more: naturalist and existential
complex environments
links plasticity and synaptic changes
neuroscience tools
EEG/ERP:different waves mean different activityCT scan: info about different types of things in the brain… densityPET scan: more blood=more activefMRI: water for activity. better time and spatial resolution