The study of teaching and learning with application to the instructional process.
 educational psychology
 the study of learning and teaching.

Doing things with a purpose.

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Teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to acheive.

 Teacher Efficacy
 the degree to which teachers feel that their own eforts determine the success of their students.
 Critical Thinking
 Evaluation of conclusions through logical and systematic examination of the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
 Explanation of the relationship between factors,such as the effects of grading systems on student motivation.
 A set of principles that explains and relates certain phenomena
a special program that is the subject of an experiment.


 Something that can have more than one value.


 Procedure used to test the effect of a treatment.
 Random Assignment
 selection by chance into different treatment groups; intended to ensure equivalence of the groups.
 Labratory experiment
 Experiment in which conditions are highly controlled.
Internal Validity
The degree to which an experiment’s results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors.
Randomized Field Experiment
Experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs.
Experimental Group
Group that receives treatment during an experiment.
Control Group
Group that receives no special treatment during an experiment.
External Validity
Degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations.;
Single-Case Experiment
Experiment that studies a treatment’s effecton one person or one group by contrasting behavior before, during, and after application of the treatment.
Correlational Study
Research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur.
Positive Correlation
Relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to high levels of another.
Negative Correlation
relationship in which high levels of one varialble correspond to low levels of another.
Uncorrelated Variables
Variables for which there is no relationship between high/low levels of one and high/low levels of the other.
Descriptive Research
Research study aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about something of interest.
Action research
research carried out by educators in their own classrooms or schools.