What theorist is known for constructing the Characteristics of Adults as Learners (CAL) model?
K.P. Cross (1981)
What theories are included in the Characteristics of Adults as Learners (CAL) model constructed by K. P. Cross?
Andragogy (Knowles)
Experiential learning(Rogers)
Lifespan psychology
The CAL model consists of what two classes of variables?
Personal characteristics and situational characteristics
Within the Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) model, what is included within the variable class of personal characteristics?
aging, life phases, and developmental stages
Within the Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) model, what is included within the variable class of situational characteristics?
part-time versus full-time learning, and voluntary versus compulsory learning
Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) Principles: Adult learning programs should capitalize on ______.
the experience of participants.
Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) Principles:Adult learning programs should adapt to _______.
the aging limitations of the participants.
Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) Principles: Adults should be challenged to____.
move to increasingly advanced stages of personal development.
Characteristics of Adult as Learners (CAL) Principles: Adults should have as much choice as possible in ______.
the availability and organization of learning programs.
Who is known for the theory of andragogy?
Malcolm Knowles
In the efforts to specifically create a theory for adult learning, Malcolm Knowles emphasizes that adults are _____.
self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions.
What are the 4 assumptions andragogy makes about the design of learning?
(1) Adults need to know why they need to learn something
(2) Adults need to learn experientially (3) Adults approach learning as problem solving
(4) Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.
In andragogy, instructors adopt a role of ____ or _____ rather than ______ or _______.
facilitator or resource;lecturer or grader
Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Principles: Adults need to be involved in the ______.
planning and evaluation of their instruction.
Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Principles: Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for ______.
learning activities.
Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Principles: Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have _____.
immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Principles: Adult learning is problem centered rather than ______.
Experiential Learning theory was constructed by
Carl Rogers.
Carl Rogers of Experiential Learning Theory distinguishes two types of learning. What are they?
cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant)
To Carl Rogers, what is included in cognitive learning?
Cognitive learning is applied knowledge such as learning about engines in order to repair a car.
To Carl Rogers, what is included in experiential learning?
Academic knowledge such as learning vocabulary or multiplication tables
What are the four qualities in experiential learning?
personal involvement
evaluated by learner
pervasive effects on learner
Experiential learning is equivalent to _____.
personal change and growth.
What are the 5 roles of a teacher through experiential learning?
(1) setting a positive climate for learning
(2) clarifying the purposes of the learner(s)
(3) organizing and making available learning resources
(4) balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning
(5) sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating
According to Carl Rogers’ Experiential Learning Theory, learning is facilitated when (3 characteristics):
(1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction
(2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems
(3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success
Carl Roger’s experiential theory of learning evolved as part of the _______ ________ movement
humanistic education
Carl Roger’s Experiential Learning Theory Principles: Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is ____.
relevant to the personal interests of the student
Carl Roger’s Experiential Learning Theory Principles:Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when ______.
external threats are at a minimum.
Carl Roger’s Experiential Learning Theory Principles: Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is ____.
Carl Roger’s Experiential Learning Theory Principles:Self-initiated learning is the most _______ and _______.
lasting and pervasive.
George A. Miller’s ______ _______ theory has provided two theoretical ideas that are fundamental to cognitive psychology and the information processing framework.
Informational Processing
What are the two concepts Miller’s Information Processing theory are known for?
TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) and “chunking” and the capacity of short term memory.
Within Information Processing Theory, how many chunks of information can be held within short term memory?
5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two)
The goal of a TOTE unit is to ______.
In a TOTE unit, a goal is tested to see if it has been achieved and if not an operation is performed to achieve the goal.
Informational Processing Theory (George A. Miller) Principles: Short term memory (or attention span) is limited to ________.
seven chunks of information.
Informational Processing Theory (George A. Miller) Principles: Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a ______.
fundamental cognitive process.
Informational Processing Theory (George A. Miller) Principles:Behavior is ______ organized (e.g., chunks, TOTE units).
Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) Principles: Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred ____.
intelligences in learning.
Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) Principles:Instructional activities should appeal to _____.
different forms of intelligence.
Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) Principles: _____ ____ ______ should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
Assessment of learning
Within the Multiple Intelligences theory by Howard Gardner, the seven primary forms of intelligence are:
intrapersonal (e.g., insight, metacognition)
interpersonal (e.g., social skills)
According to Gardner , the implication of the theory is that learning/teaching should focus on the ______________.
particular intelligences of each person.
Howard Gardner recognizes the how the emphasis of ____ influences particular intelligences.
Script Theory (R. Schank) Principles: Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object _______.
in a direction.
Script Theory (R. Schank) Principles: All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a ___________.
small number of primative acts.
Script Theory (R. Schank) Principles: __________ is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
All memory
Script Theory (R. Schank) Principles: Scripts allow individuals to make _______ and hence ___________.
inferences; understand verbal/written discourse
Script Theory (R. Schank) Principles: Higher level expectations are created by ________.
goals and plans.
The best theory to address concepts of language processing and higher thinking skills is __________.
Script theory
The structure of knowledge, especially in the context of language understanding,has been the central focus of Schank’s _____ theory.
Schank (1975) outlined contextual dependency theory which deals with the _______.
representation of meaning in sentences.
Within Script Theory, the key element of conceptual dependency theory is the idea that all conceptualizations can be ______.
represented in terms of a small number of primative acts performed by an actor on an object.
Within Script Theory,an important aspect of dynamic memory are___________ that represent stereotyped answers to events that involve analomies or unusual events.
explanatory processes (XPs)
Situated Learning (J. Lave) Principles: ________ needs to be presented in an authentic context, i.e., settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
Situated Learning (J. Lave) Principles: Learning requires ______ and ______.
social interaction and collaboration.
Three theories where Situated Learning Theory come from are:
Gibson (Theory of Affordances)
Vygotsky (social learning)
The theory of Schoenfeld on mathematical problem solving
Lave, the creators of Situated Learning Theory, argues that learning as it normally occurs, is a function of three things:
activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated).
______ ______ is a critical component of situated learning.
Social interaction
Brown, Collins & Duguid (1989) expanded the idea around Situated Learning Theory by adding the idea of ______ _______.
cognitive apprenticeship
Social Learning Theory is the creation of ______ _____.
Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) Principles: The highest level of observational learning is achieved by ____________. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
…first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly.
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) Principles: Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in _______.
outcomes they value.
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) Principles: Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and __________.
has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Examples of situations where Social Learning Theory are applied are:
understanding of aggression, psychological disorders, behavior modification, behavior modeling for training programs, concept of self-efficacy
The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the ______, ______, and _____ _____ importance of observing and modeling the of others.
behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions
Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between ________, ______ and _______.
cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.
Component processes underlying observational learning within Social Learning Theory (4):
Attention and observer characteristics
Motor Reproduction
Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Principles: Attribution is a three stage process:
(1) behavior is observed, (2) behavior is determined to be deliberate, and (3) behavior is attributed to internal or external causes.
Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Principles: Achievement can be attributed to __(4)__.
(1) effort, (2) ability, (3) level of task difficulty, or (4) luck.
Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Principles: Causal dimensions of behavior are (3):
(1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability.
Attribution theory is mainly concerned with _____.
how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior.
A person, under Attribution Theory, seeking to understand why another person did something may attribute one or more causes to that behavior. The three-stage process underlies an attribution are:
(1) the person must perceive or observe the behavior, (2) then the person must believe that the behavior was intentionally performed, and (3) then the person must determine if they believe the other person was forced to perform the behavior (in which case the cause is attributed to the situation) or not (in which case the cause is attributed to the other person).
Weiner, under Attribution Theory, identified ____, _____, _____ and ____ as the most important factors affecting attributions for achievement.
ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck
Attributions are classified along three causal dimensions:
locus of control, stability, and controllability.
Attribution theory is closely associated with the concept of ______ and ______ Theory.
motivation, Script
Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) Principles: Dissonance results when an individual must choose between ________ and __________ that are contradictory.
attitudes and behaviors
Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) Principles: Dissonance can be ________ by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change. It is especially relevant to _______ and ________.
decision-making and problem-solving
According to Cognitive Dissonance Theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek _________ among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions).
What are the two factors that affect the strength of dissonance?
the number of dissonant beliefs, and the importance attached to each belief.
Reducing the importance of the dissonant beliefs, adding more consonant beliefs that outweigh the dissonant beliefs, or changing the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent.
Are the three ways to eliminate dissonance
Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) Principles: Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that ______.
make the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) Principles: Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the ____.
student (spiral organization).
Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) Principles:Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in _______.
the gaps (going beyond the information given).
The major theme in Constructivist Theory is ____.
that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
The instructor should try and _____ students to discover principles by themselves, ______ in an active dialog (i.e., socratic learning), and _____ information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding.
encourage; engage, translate
What are the four major aspects that a theory of instruction should address, according to Bruner’s Constructivist Theory?
Bruner (1966) states that a theory of instruction should address four major aspects: (1) predisposition towards learning, (2) the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner, (3) the most effective sequences in which to present material, and (4) the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments.
Transformative Learning (Jack Mezirow) Principles: Adult exhibit two kinds of learning…
instrumental (e.g., cause/effect) and communicative (e.g., feelings)
Transformative Learning (Jack Mezirow) Principles:Learning involves change to ______ ______ (perspectives and schemes).
meaning structures
Transformative Learning (Jack Mezirow) Principles:Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about _____, _____ or _____.
content, process or premises.
Transformative Learning (Jack Mezirow) Principles: ________ can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives.
What are the two basic kinds of learning within Transformational Theory?
instrumental and communicative learning
Instrumental learning (in _________ Theory)focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships.
______ ______ in Transformational Theory involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires.
Communicative learning
Meaning perspectives are defined by Mezirow as _______.
“broad sets of predispositions resulting from psychocultural assumptions which determine the horizons of our expectations”.
What are the three sets of codes that meaning perspectives are divided up in?
sociolinguistic codes, psychological codes, and epistemic codes.