3 Demenisions of DAP

Age appropriate

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Socially/Culturally Appropriate

Individually Appropriate

Age Appropriate

making sure activities are centered around the child’s age

-understanding their feelings

-language skills

-following line of continuation in curriculum

-exploring new materials

Socially/Culturally Appropriate

Learning about child’s values and expectations/behaviors that shape a child’s home life

  • caring and positive environment
  • inviting classroom
  • welcoming to all children
  • learn about child’s background

Individually Appropriate

centering activities around each child’s individual needs and interests

  • Incorporating all subject areas
  • knowing child’s strengths and weaknesses
  • creates alternative activites for children with disabilities


What is DAP?

Approach to teaching that uses research in how children develop and learn to obtain an effective early education

founded by NAEYC


National Association for the Education of Young Children

recommends that curriculum be meaningful and relevant for young children

Visual/Spatial Intelligence
capability to picture and graphically represent spatial/visual ideas
ability to connect to world around you, deals with connecting between Earth and other living things
ability to recognize and use pitch, rhythm, and tone and to appreciate different forms of musical expression
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Controlling one’s body movements to understand through body and mind
Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
Combine use of common knowledge with numbers and operations
5 Main Elements Presented by Constructivism

  1. Student-Centered Instruction
  2. Social Negotiation and Shared Responsibility as a part of learning
  3. Complex, challenging learning environments and authentic tasks
  4. Multiple Representations of content
  5. Understanding that knowledge is constructed

Student-Centered Instruction

Student Leveler

  • Avoid potential power struggles
  • make students more responsible
  • students vecome more responsible for their learning

Social Negotiation and Shared Responsibility

Partner Pliers

  • knowledge is socially constructed and interaction is vital to a student’s learning

Complex, challenging learning environments and authentic tasks

Stimulating Screwdriver

  • promoting less emphasis on reading and writing more emphasis on those experiences that enhance creativity and diversity

Multiple Representations of Content

Multiple Measurer

  • The more concrete the representation the more effective it will be
  • using their bodies, symbols, language, social relationships, environment and a variety of situations

Understanding that knowledge is constructed

Knowledge Hammer

  • each student constructs knowledge by looking at their past experiences and relating them to the new ideas

Role of teacher in constructivism

guide to studnets’ learning, practical situations, objectives for sensations and experiences

Inspired by/Practice: The Project approach, Reggio Emilia, and Dewey

Role of student in constructivism
engages learners in cognitive process, social interaction, actively invlolved
Information Processing Learning Theory
group of theoretical frameworks that address how human beings receive, think about, mentally modify and remember information and how such cognitive process change over course of development
4 Stages of Memory


Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory


Sensory Memory

1st stage

Always learning and using it

Short Term Memory

2nd stage

Mind is processing all of your information

Long Term Memory

3rd Stage

Permanently stored information

ability to recall at will


4th Stage

most important

Elements of Social Learning Theory

  1. Paying attention: the more engaged you are toward the situation, more learning can take place
  2. Retaining information: essential for later reproduction, many people have different techniques to help retain information
  3. Producing: once able to watch actions by observing, next is producing that learned behavior
  4. Motivation: incentive to achieve

General Concept of Social Learning Theory

focuses on observational and social spect behind learning behaviors

  • Albert Bandura
  • “Observe to learn and learn to observe”

Theorists Behind Behaviorism

  • B.F. Skinner (Operant) –>Skinner box
  • John B. Watson (Classical Conditioning) –>Little Albert
  • Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning) –> Pavlov’s Dogs

Conditioned response occurs in response to the presentation of another simliar stimulus not just the conditioned stimuli
Ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and another similiar stimulus that doesn’t signal an uncondtioned stimulus
disappearance of a learned response
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

1. Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

2. Preoperational (2-7 years)

3. Concrete Operational (7-11)

4. Formal Operational (11-adult)

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

-Social and individual level

-Co-constructed processses

-Cultural tools

-Mediation tools

-Zone of Proximal Development


Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial development

  1. Trust v. Mistrust (infancy)
  2. Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt (1 1/2-3 years)
  3. Initiative v. Guilt (3-6 years)
  4. Industry v. Inferiority (6-12 years)
  5. Identity v. Role confusion (adolescence)

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

-Highly criticized b/c stages are difficult to separate or sequence and they are inconsistent

  1. Preconventional: judgment based solely on person’s own needs/perceptions
  2. Conventional: expectations of societies/laws are taken into account
  3. Postconventional: judgments based on abstract, more personal principles of justice

Ways to gain cooperation in the classroom

  1. plan activities
  2. have materials prepared
  3. developmentally appropriate expectations for behavior/academics
  4. giving clear signals to students
  5. accomplishing transitions smoothly
  6. proactive
  7. select and sequence delivery
  8. establish a climate of trust and respect

statements specifying expected and forbidden behaviors (Do’s and Don’ts)
Prescribed steps for an activity (routines)
Deal with Aggression and encourage cooperation

  1. present yourself as a non-aggressive model
  2. ensure that your classroom has enough space and appropriate materials for every student
  3. make sure that students don’t profit from aggressive behaviors
  4. taeach directly about positive social behaviors
  5. provide opportunities for learning tolerance and cooperation
  6. coach victimized children to be more assertive

Designing Learning Spaces

  1. Note the “fixed” features, plan around them
  2. Create easy access to materials and a well organized place to store them
  3. Provide students with clean , convenient surfaces for studying
  4. Make sure work areas are private and quiet
  5. Arrange things so you can see your students and they can see all instructional presentation
  6. Avoid dead spaces and “race tracks”
  7. Provide choices and flexibility
  8. Try new arrangements, then evaluate and improve

Self control is learned through

  • making choices and dealing with consequences
  • setting goals and priorities
  • managing time
  • collaborating to learn
  • mediating disputes and making peace
  • developing trusting relationships

3 Main ideas from Wong

  1. 1st day is more important than graduation day
  2. dress for respect, authority, acceptance, and credibility
  3. Things must be repeated 8 times before it sticks