Phonics
The association of speech sounds with printed symbols.
Phonemic Awareness
Hearing individual sounds in spoken words
Decoding
the ability to translate the alphabet letters into recognizable sounds and to use that knowledge to sound out and pronounce words.
Phonemes
the smallest unit of sound – /a/, /b/, /c/, /d/, etc
Graphemes
the symbol that represents the phoneme – a, b, c, d, etc
Blends
A combination of 2 or more consonant letters appearing together; bl, cl, dr, ld, st, str, ft, ?.
Digraphs
A grapheme composed of two letters that represent one speech sound – ch, sh, th, gh, wh, ph, dg
Rime
the vowel located at the beginning of a syllable that gives it the vowel sound. It may be followed by consonants that complete the syllable. Every syllable has a rime.
Onset
the initial consonant or consonants in a syllable. Will be followed by a Rime
Consonant Blend
A blend is two or more consonants that retain their identity when read together. Ex..Block, clock, drop, child, street, left. Common blends include: bl, cl, dr, ld, st, str, ft, ?.
Dependable Consonants
Some consonant letters have dependable phonetic sounds. They (for the most part) always sound the same and they always have the same grapheme. These letters are: b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, t, v, w, z
Diphthong
Vowel sounds that are so closely blended that they can be treated as single vowel units. Example – /ou/ as in out; /oy/ as in toy; /oi/ as in join; /ow/ as in cow
Vowel Digraph
A vowel digraph is two letters with the first letter making a long sound and the second letter is silent. We call this: “first one does the talking, the second keeps on walking.” ee, ay, ai, oo, ee, oa
Consonant Digraph
A digraph is two letters that come together and make one sound. This is different from a blend. In a blend the two sounds can be distinguished; sh, ch, ph, th, wh, -ch, -ck, -sh, -tch, -th
Alphabetic Principle
The concept that letters represent speech sounds.
What is the onset of a word?
The part of the syllable that proceeds the vowel.
What are the rules for dividing syllables?
Divide between matching consonants, divide before a single middle consonant, divide compound words
What are the special characteristics of the letter y?
It can be both a vowel and a consonant
When is y used as a vowel?
When it is anywhere but the first letter in the word.
When is y used as a consonant?
When it is the first letter in the word.
What vowels make the schwa sound?
a, e, i, o, u
Can you recognize the schwa sound in a particular word?
comma, chicken, family, melon, circus
What are the special characteristics of the letter q?
It is unnecessary as it always makes the /k/ sound and could be replaced by the letter k
What sound does the letter q make?
/k/
Why could the letter q be removed from the alphabet?
it could be replaced by the letter k
Which letter could replace the letter q?
k
When does the letter w have the characteristics of a consonant?
when it proceeds a vowel
What are the two sounds usually associated with the letter s?
/s/ & /z/
When is the letter h silent?
following a vowel, following (g, k & r), and at the end of a word.
When the consonant b follows the consonant m at the end of the word, what happens?
it becomes silent
What is an open syllable?
a syllable that ends in a vowel phoneme
What is a closed syllable?
a syllable that ends in a consonant phoneme
Describe phonics and its uses in the classroom.
Phonics is the association of sounds to printed words. Without phonics, children would have a hard time reading and spelling.