Multicultural Education
An educational strategy in which students’ cultures are used to develop effective classroom instruction and school environments.
Immigration
To enter a country in which one was not born for the purpose of becoming a permanent resident.
Curriculum
A sequence of courses offered by educational institutions.
Values
Qualities or principles that are considered desirable and important.

Culture
Socially transmitted ways of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting within a group.; These patterns are transmitted from one generation to the next.
Equality
State of being equal in that one cultural group is not inferior or superior to another and that all groups have access to the same benefits of society regardless of their group memberships.
Social Justice
A philosophy that expects citizens to provide foro those persons in society who are not as advantaged as others.
Dispositions
Values, attitudes, and commitments that guide the work of teachers and other school professionals.

Racism
Belief that one race has inherent superiority over all others and therby has the right to dominate.
Sexism
The concious or unconcious belief that men are superior to women that results in behavior and action to maintain the superior, powerful position of males in society and families.
Cultural Capital
Endowments such as academic competence, language competence, and wealth that provide an advantage to an individual, family, or group.
Compensatory Education
The provision of special services to students who have limited economic or educational advantages with a goal of reducing the educational gap between them and more advantaged students.
Dominant Culture
The cultural group whose values and behaviors have been adopted by most institutions in society, such as schools.; In the United States, it is the middle class, white, English-speaking, heterosexual Christian culture with its historical roots in Europe.
Critical Thinking
An effort to see an issue clearly and truly to judge it fairly without a preset bias.
Proficiencies
Knowledge, skills, and dispositions that students or teachers acquire to meet standards.

Enculturation
Process of acquiring the characteristics of a given culture and becoming competent in its langauage and ways of behaving and learning.
Socialization
Process of learning the social norms and expectations of a culture.
Ethnocentrism
View that one’s cultural group is superior to all others.

Subsocieties
Systems of values, attitudes, and behaviors of social groups within society.  Examples are gangs, groupies, and skinheads.
Subcultures
Subsocieties connected to cultural group memberships such as gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, exceptionalities, language, and age.
Cultural Borders
A boundary based on cultural differences that may limit an individual’s understanding of persons from a different cultural background.
Assimilation
Process by which groups adopt or change the dominant culture.
Informal Curriculum
Rules that guide the expected behaviors and attitudes of students in schools.
Bicultural
A person who is competent in two cultures and educational programs that recognize the value and worth of both the dominant culture and the culture of a student’s family, enhancing the development or maintenance of a self-positive image.
Otherness
Cultural groups that are different from our own.

Individualism
Dominant feature of Western culture that stresses the rights, freedom, and importance of individuals over groups.
Freedom
Not being unduly hampered or constrained in choice or action by others.
Privileged
Individuals or groups whose socioeconomic status, race, native language, gender, or other group memberships give them advantages and power over others in society.
Canon
The principles, rules, standards, values, or norms that guide a Western European education.

Marginalization
Relegation to a position that is not part of the mainstream nor accepted by most people.
Alienation
Estrangement or disconnected from oneself or others.
Acculturation
Adoption of the dominant group’s cultural patterns by a new or oppressed group.
Strucutural Assimilation
Assimilation of groups to the point that they share primary relationships, intermarry, and have equality with the dominant group.
Involuntary Immigrants
Immigrants who did not choose to emigrate from their native countries, but were forced to or conquered by the country in which they are living.
Cultural Pluralism
The maintenance of cultures as parallel and equal to the dominant culture in a society.

Democracy
A government in which power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through elected representatives.
Egalitarianism
A belief in social, political, and economic rights and privileges for all people.
Meritocracy
A system based on the belief that an individual’s achievements are based on their own personal merits and hard work and that the people who achieve at the highest levels deserve the greatest social and financial rewards.
Inequality
Marked distinctions in economic success, educational achievement, educational credentials, and power among groups of people.
Social Justice
A philosophy that expects citizens to provide for those persons in society who are not as advantaged as others.

Prejudice
Negative attitudes about a group of people.
Discrimination
The arbitrary denial of the privilges and rewards of society to members of a group.
Stereotyped
Application of generalizations, many of which are negative, about a group without consideration of individual differences within the group.
Ethnic Group
Membership based on one’s national origin or the national origin of one’s ancestors when they immigrated to the United States.
Indigenous
Population that is native to a country or region.

  In the United States, American Indians, Hawaiians, and Alaska Native are the indigenous populations.

Emigrate
To leave one’s native country to relocate in another country.
Civil Rights
The rights of personal liberty guaranteed by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S.

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Constitution and by acts of Congress.

Nativism
Policy favoring assimilated ethnic groups over more recent immigrants.
Nationalism
National identity based on a common language, common culture, and loyalty and devotion to a nation.
Asylees
Individuals who travel to the United States from another country and ask for asylum or protection from being persecuted in their native country.