the ways in which letters and letter patterns in words represent sound and meaning?
orthography
who came up with invented spelling?
charles read and carol chomsky
a learner centered, conceptual approach to instruction in phonics, spelling, word recognition and vocabulary based on a developmental model?
word study
first students develop a ___knowledge of english spelling. second word study increases_____ knowledge of words -the spellings and meanings of individual words.
general; specific
3 common type of errors made in word study?
errors dealing with alphabetic match of letters and sounds; errors dealing with letter patterns; errors dealing with words related in meaning
3 layers of english orthography?
meaning; pattern; alphabet
when was the alphabetic layer established?
old english
there are how many sounds in the english language and how many letters?
42-44; 26
pattern was established during the?
norman french
a silent letter used to indicate the sound of the vowel. like the i in drain or the a in treat but they can also be consonants as the l in told?
vowel marker
AI pattern also known as the?
consontant-vowel-vowel-consonsant CVVC
the meaning layer consists of?
prefixes, suffixes and greek and latin roots, morphemes
meaning layer was during what time?
renaissance period
the 5 stages of spelling development?
emergent stage (emergent reading), letter name-alphabetic stage (beginning reading), within word pattern stage (transitional reading), syllables and affixes stage (intermediate reading), derivational relations(advanced reading)
orthographic development is defined by 3 functional levels that are useful guides for knowing when to teach what?
1.) what students do correctly at independent or easy level
2.) what students use but confuse
3.) what is absent in students spelling
emergent stage encompasses?
writing efforts of children who are not yet reading conventionally
emergent reading range in age from?
2-5
moving on from emergent reading stage to the next stage depends on the understanding of?
alphabetic principle
the letter name-alphabetic spelling stage encompasses that period?
where students are formally taught to read
letter name-alphabetic spelling stage is ages ?
4-7
in letter name-alphabetic stage students use the?
names of the letters as cues to the sounds they want to represent
during the letter name-alphabetic stage students begin to learn?
phonemes
students entering the within word pattern spelling stage can?
read and spell many words correctly because of their automatic knowledge of letters sounds and short vowel patterns.
age range of within word pattern spelling stage?
6-9
sound is neither long or short and the same pattern may represent different sounds, such as the ou in mouth, through, and tough
ambigious vowels
what two things occur in within word pattern stage that children usually make mistakes over?
ambiguous vowels; homophones
the syllables and affixes stage is when?
students are expected to spell many words of more than one syllable
syllables and affixes stage is what age range?
8-12
the derivational relations spelling stage is the final stage where students
continue to read and write according to their interests and specialities
the derivational relations spelling stage what grades?
grades 4 and 5 and also middle school, high school and college even adulthood
approach to word study that emphasizes orthographic principles that apply to many words as opposed to an approach that focus on individual words
generative
in the derivational relations stage word study builds on and expands knowledge of a wide vocabulary including words of greek and latin origin refereed to as?
generative
levels in literacy development? (4)
emergent, beginning, transitional, intermediate and advanced
during the emergent stage students may?
“read” familar books from memory using pictures on each page to cue their recitation of the text which is called pre reading
beginning readers start to use?
systematic letter-sound matches to identify and store words in memory
beginning reading is achieved when students?
have a concept of word in text
during the transitional reading stage?
students reading becomes more fluent because it is supported by a store of words that can be identified automatically “at first sight”
students in the intermediate and advanced reader stage?
have relatively automatic word recognition and vocal and words use play a central role between reading and writing