Microcephaly, blind, mental retardation, fetal death
Rubella Virus
Cataracts, Glaucoma, heart defects, deaf, tooth abnormailties
Herpes Simplex Virus
micropthalmia, microcephaly, retinal dysplasia
varicella virus
limb hypoplasia, mental retardation, muscle atrophy
microcephaly, growth retardation
hydrocephalus cerebral calcifcation microopthalmia (CATS FECES)
metal retardation, deafness
X Ray
spina bifida, cleft palate, limb defects, small head
Hyperthermia *Hot tubs and saunas*
anacencephaly, spina bifida, mental retardation, facial defects, heart defects, omphalocele, limb defects
Thalidomide *Sedative drugs and anti nausseant*
LIMB DEFECTS!! heart malformations
anencephaly, hydrocephaly, cleft lip/palate
Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)/ Valproic Acid/trimethadione

Epileptic Medication

Valproic Acid- neural tube defects

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Diphenylhydantoin- fetal hydantoin
syndromes : retardation, facial defects

Trimethadione- facial defects heart, urogenital, skeletal abnormalities

Antipsychotics- Lithium and phenothaizine
Heart malformations
cleft lip and palate, heart defects
microcephaly, chondrodysplasia
ACE inhibitors
growth retardation, fetal death, oligohydramnios
growth retardation, microcephaly, behavioral issues, gastroschisis
FAS, short palpebral fissures, heart defects, retardation
Vitamin A- ISOTRETINOIN (Acne medication)
Vitamin A embryopathy- small shaped ears, small mandible, cleft palate, heart defects
Maternal Diabetes
heart and neural tube defects most common
Maternal Obesity
Heart defects, omphalocele, neural tube defects
cleft palate
Endemic Cretinism
Iodine deficiency- low birth weight and birth defects