How an individual pronounces a word
Additive bilingualism
Additive bilingualism occurs when two languages are of equal
value and neither dominates the other.
American Sign Language (ASL)
A natural language that has been developed and used
by persons who are deaf using a system of manual gestures.
Somewhat secret vocabulary of a co-culture group
Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS)
Basic, everyday conversational
skills, which English language learners can develop in approximately two years.
An individual who has the ability to speak or utilize two or more dialects
Bilingual Education
Bilingual education is the use of two languages as a media of
instruction. It accepts and develops native language and culture in the instructional
process to learn English and to learn academic subject matter. Bilingual education may
use the native language, as well as English, as the medium of instruction.
The ability to function in two languages. While some contend that
bilingualism implies native-like fluency, others measure competency in two languages as
adequate to be considered bilingual
Black English
Another term for African American English, Vernacular Black English,
and Ebonics. A dialect used by many African Americans and used primarily by those in
working-class families.
People who are part of one culture, but live and practice another culture in addition to their own.
Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
The higher levels of proficiency
required in highly structured academic situations.
A word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation.
Variations of a language usually determined by region or social class (e.g.,
southern drawl).
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Educational strategy that relies exclusively on
English for teaching or learning the English language—ESL programs are used
extensively in this country as a primary medium to assimilate English language learners
(ELLs) into the linguistic mainstream as quickly as possible.
English Language Learners (ELL)
Students who have limited or no English skills
and who are in the process of learning English.
English only
Used interchangeably with “official English.”
Formal standard
—The acceptable written language that is typically found in grammar
Informal standard
The language considered proper in a community.
A person who only knows one language
Nonstandard dialect
A dialect of the same language (e.g., English), that is not
considered standard (e.g., Black English).
Official English
A position supported by U.S. English, a citizens’ action group, which
is seeking to have English declared by Congress as the official language of the United
States. Individuals who support this movement believe that all public documents,
records, legislation and regulations, as well as hearings, official ceremonies and public
meetings should be conducted solely in English
Art or science of teaching, which includes instructional strategies and
Proposition 227
An initiative passed by California voters in 1998 that required all
language minority students to be educated in sheltered English immersion programs, not
normally intended to exceed one year. Although it has not completely succeeded,
Proposition 227 was designed to eliminate bilingual education from California’s schools.
Regression to the mean
A statistical phenomenon that implies that scores at the
extreme ends of the statistical distribution move toward the population average (mean),
with low scores moving higher and high scores moving lower
Sheltered English immersion
A process of English language acquisition structured so 3
that nearly all instruction is in English—This is the instructional method mandated by
California Proposition 227 and is normally limited to one year.
Signed English
A system that translates the English oral or written word into a sign
Standard English
The English spoken by a particular group of individuals in a
community. Typically this group is the professional educated middle class and the group
with a high degree of influence and prestige in the community.
Subtractive bilingualism
—Occurs when a second language replaces the first
Transitional programs
Transitional programs emphasize bilingual education as a
means of moving from the culture and language most commonly used for communication
in the home to the mainstream of U.S. language and culture. The native language of the
home is used to help the student make the transition to the English language. The native
language is gradually phased out as the student becomes more proficient in English.
Vernacular Black English
Another term for Black English, African American
English, and Ebonics. A dialect used by many African Americans and used primarily by
those in working-class families
—One who believes that the existence of God can neither be proven nor
unproven. Therefore they do not believe in a God or Goddess.
Name of God among muslims
One who positively does not believe in the existence of a God or Goddess
Born again
Christians who have had a conversion experience with a spiritual rebirth
into a new life
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subjec
Members of the Roman Catholic Church who believe that the Pope in Rome is
God’s visible lieutenant on earth and the rightful leader of Christianity.
Conservative Protestants
Protestants who believe in the virgin birth of Jesus, the Bible
being inerrant, and Jesus as the son of God as essential to salvation.
Creation science—
The term advocated by conservative Protestants who support the
teaching of the Biblical account of creation in public schools in addition to or in place of
the theory of evolution.
Conservative Christians who fall under a broad umbrella
The most conservative wing of a religious group, whether Protestant,
Catholic, Jewish, Islamic, etc. These are often groups that dig in their heels to protect
their faith from external forces they perceive as attacking their faith and morality
Fundamentalist Christians
Conservative Christians who advocate the teaching of
creation asrepresented in the Bible as opposed to the theory of evolution.
the common religion of India, based upon the religion of the original Aryan settlers as expounded and evolved in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc., having an extremely diversified character with many schools of philosophy and theology, many popular cults, and a large pantheon symbolizing the many attributes of a single god. Buddhism and Jainism are outside the Hindu tradition but are regarded as related religions.
Intelligent design
A theory that only an intelligent being could have created a natural
world so complex and well ordered as ours. Some, if not most supporters of the evolution
theory, view intelligent design as a new term for creationism or creation science.
The religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
The Arabic word for Muslims, which means the struggle in the path of Allah or
God. It can mean the struggle against human passions and instincts, which inhibit one
from doing the work of God. It can also mean an armed struggle against forces of
injustice. Muslim scholars teach that only defensive wars are truly jihad. It is often
mistakenly interpreted by non-Muslims to mean a holy war, evoking images of terrorists
Usually refers to food prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws
Koran, or Qur’an
The Koran is the holy writings of Islam, believed by Muslims to be
the exact words revealed by God or Allah to the prophet Muhammad. It is also written as
Qur’an in English.
Liberal Protestants
Protestants considered to be on the liberal end of the religious
continuum who view Christianity in ways meaningful in a world of science and continual
change. They stress the right of the individual to determine what is true in religion. They
Pertaining to subculturessuch as religion, gender, and ethnicity
follower of islam
New Age
s a Western spiritual movement that developed in the second half of the 20th century. Its central precepts have been described as “drawing on both Eastern and Western spiritual and metaphysical traditions and infusing them with influences from self-help and motivational psychology, holistic health, parapsychology, consciousness research and quantum physics”.[2] The term New Age refers to the coming astrological Age of Aquarius.[1]
The general name given to an extremely diverse group of Christians, who
may differ slightly or greatly from one another. See the Glossary and the chapter for
Roman Catholics
Members comprise the largest Christian church in the world with
over one billion adherents. See the Glossary and the chapter for details.
Sabbath (or Shabbat) —
the seventh day of the week, Saturday, as the day of rest and religious observance among Jews and some Christians.
Secular Humanism
A nonreligiously based philosophy promoting man as the measure
of all things. Typically rejects the concept of a personal God and regards humans as
supreme. Secular humanists tend to see God as a creation of man, rather than man being a
creation of God.
A monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by the guru Nanak. Sikhism rejects caste distinctions, idolatry, and asceticism and is characterized by belief in a cycle of reincarnation from which humans can free themselves by living righteous lives as active members of society.
Individuals who are not a part of an organized church or religious
group—It does not necessarily mean that the individual is without religion or spiritual
Unification Church
The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, commonly called the Unification Church or Unificationism,[1][2] is a new religious movement founded in South Korea in 1954 by Sun Myung Moon. Since its founding, the church has expanded throughout the world. It is most prominent in East Asia.[3]
Unification Church beliefs are based on the Bible and are explained in the church’s textbook, Divine Principle. It teaches that God is the creator, whose dual nature combines both masculinity and femininity.
—For the purposes of this text, certificates issued by a government to parents
to be applied toward the cost of private school education.
Charter schools—Public
schools that are exempt from many of the bureaucratic
regulations of traditional public schools.
The result of European Americans, African Americans, and American
Indians intermarrying and developing unique cultures, languages, and dialects.
Developing nations
Countries that have lower per capita income, greater poverty, and
much less capital development than the nations that wield global economic power,
such as the United States, Japan, and European countries.
The natural system of animals, plants, and microorganisms functioning
together in the physical and chemical environment in which they are located.
Study of the earth’s surface, why people live where they live, how the
place in which one lives affects the lives of its residents, and how regions of a country
and the world impact on each other.
A system that connects countries economically, politically,
environmentally, and culturally through a global economy supported by free trade,
international corporations, and worldwide labor markets.
Human geography
The study of the economic, social, and cultural systems that have
evolved in a specific location of the world.
Magnet schools—
Schools in which the curriculum emphasizes a particular subject or
field such a performing arts or mathematics and science. Generally, students from
anywhere in a school district can apply to attend these schools
Manifest destiny
A policy in which a nation or culture believes they are superior to all
others and are destined to rule over other nations and cultures.
A geographic area that includes a city with a substantial population and
adjacent communities that are economically connected to the city.
Physical geography
The study of the physical features of the earth.
Subsistence living/farming
A socioeconomic system in which people produce enough
food for their communities to survive, but do not accumulate food or money for
private use.
The communities that surround a city and are home to many of the city’s
Big ideas
The major concepts that support a subject such as mathematics or
English language arts.
The principles, rules, standards, values, or norms that guide a Western
European education
Cooperative learning
Strategy for grouping students to work together on a project to
support and learn from each other.
Critical thinking
An effort to see an issue clearly and truly to judge it fairly without
preset bias.
Culturally responsive teaching
A pedagogy that affirms the cultures of students,
views the cultures and experiences of students as strengths, and reflects the students’
cultures in the teaching process.
Values, attitudes, and commitments that guide the work of teachers and
other school professionals.
Meaningful projects
Student projects that address equity, democratic, and social
justice issues in the community.
Multicultural curriculum
Coursework in schools that incorporates the histories,
experiences, traditions, and cultures of students in the classroom and supports and
celebrates diversity in the broadest sense.