3 Empirical Theorists To Know:

Aristotle

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Locke

Hume

Empirical

 

(3) Types of Research Models:

Developmental – experimental psychology – people respond mechanically

 

Epistemological – knowledge origin is from without – common goal – known text (universitas)

 

Experimental – natural science – true knowledge

 

 

 

Assimilationist

 

Majority rules

and

absorbs less powerful culture

 

Behaviorist

 

All behavior is a response to stimuli and predictable

 

*Pavlov’s Dog

*B.F. Skinner

 

Objectivism

 

Complete, systematic

integrated system of thought

 

Rationalist

 

Human reason is starting place for construction of knowledge

 

*Descartes

 

Empiricist

 

 

Knowledge foundation of human experience

 

Determinist

 

 

No random events

Determined by past behaviors and events

 

 

Essentialist

 

 

Hard work

Mental Discipline

Core of Knowledge

Three R’s

 

 

Structuralist

 

 

Believes there are societal universal structures

 

 

Perrennialist

 

 

Underlying principles of existence are constant

 

We can pass on a body of knowledge- *Edelman

 

 

Positivist

 

 

Logical

Quantitative study of human phenomena- *Comte

 

 

Realist

 

 

Concepts exist (not just names)

Knowledge & values are independent of human mind- *Aristotle

 

 

Methods/Procedures/Techniques

  1. Nomothetic (General Laws)-Agree on general truths
  2. Survey -Verbal/Written
  3. Experiment
  4. Randomized Sampling
  5. Pre/Post Test (given before and after)
  6. Statistical Analysis Correlation
  7. Correlational Studies
  8. Use of Control Group

 

William Glassner

 

 

Control theory is about fulfilling the needs of the individual

 

Marian Edelman

 

Children will model what they see

 

Erik Erikson

 

Eight stages of psychosocial development

 

Freidrich Hegel

 

Students must conform to institutional order and laws of reason

 

Believed in self-consciousness

 

Laid foundation of Social Philosophy

 

E.D. Hirsch

 

Core knowledge exists

 

Thomas Hobbes

 

 

Cause & Effect

Geometry & Physics answer questions without human nature

 

David Hume

 

All knowledge comes from experience

 

Ayn Rand

 

 

Objectivism is a complete, systematic, integrated system of thought

 

Bertrand Russell

 

Reality gounded in mathematics

 

Principia Mathematical

 

Lawrence Kohlberg

 

Theory of Moral Development

 

(Influenced by Piaget & Dewey)

 

John Locke

 

Knowledge is publicly verifiable, measurable

 

Ivan Pavlov

 

Conditioning

 

Jean Piaget

 

Five Stages of Cognitive Development

 

B.F. Skinner

 

Behaviorist

Operant Conditioning

Schedules of Reinforcement

 

Edward Thorndike

 

Law of Effect

Law of Readiness

Law of Exercise

 

Lev Vygotsky

 

Scaffolding- Private Speech

 

Edmund Husseri

 

Principle Founder of Phenomenology