Change in the delivery of instruction. The “how” material will be taught.
Landmark federal law passed in 1975.
AKA: Education for All Handicapped Childre Act.
amended in 1990 to IDEA then again in 1997 without a name change. In 2004 it was re-authorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Enacted in 1990, it ensures the right of individuals with disabilities to non-discriminatory treatment in other aspects of their lives, such as transportation, employment, public accomodations, tele-communications and state & local government.
Major Provisions of IDEA
Identification: Child find, extensive efforts to identify as early as possible.
Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Due Process: students & parents have the rights to be notified and give consent before evaluation, label, placement, and the right to an impartial due process hearing to resolve disputes.
Least Restrictive Environment
Non-discriminatory Evaluation
Personnel Development for Field Professionals
Speech disorder
Difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality
Language disorder
Difficulty receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information.
Receptive language disorder

Expressive language disorder

difficulty receiving or understanding information

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difficulty formulating ideas and information


Phonology disorders

use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words

unable to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments


Morhpology disorders

system that governs the structure of words

difficulties with using the structure of words to get or give information


Syntax disorders

provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences

errors involving word disorder


Pragmatics disorders

use of communication in contexts; the overall organizer for language

ex. when a student talks for a long time and does not allow anyone else to speak

Social interaction theories
emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
Substitution articulation error

Omission articulation error

Addition articulation error

Distortion articulation error

when one substitues one sound for another

when one leaves out a phoneme

when one adds an additional phoneme to a word

modifications of a production of a phoneme in a word;lisp.

motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
Articulation & apraxia assessment
evaluate a student’s abilities to produce speech sounds in single words, sentences, and conversation
Fluency assessment
Definition 34
measures amount and type of dysfluency
Augmented and Alternative Communication Devices (AAC) devices
augmentative and alternative communication system consisting of two components: a symbol set and a means for selecting the symbols
UDL-Communication disorders
Using audio & text formats; varying teaching medium
Percentage of students w/ a mild TBI
More males than Female
Hard of hearing threshold

Deaf threshhold

Hearing loss in the 20-70db range

Had hearing loss of 70-90db

Vestibular mechanism
Sensory organ of balance
Lack of oxygen before birth; cause of deafness
Criteria for gifted students
No single national definition; unclear to categorize #s of gifted

Compact the curriculum

Moving students rapidly through standard sequence of curriculum by having the skip a course or grade

pretesting student then leaving out portions student already knows

educational theory that learners assemble their knowledge through their experiences
existential school of pscyh that promotes mans personal freedom, individuality
Definition 21
school of pysch that manipulates behavior by conditioning with stimulus and response


3 of the greatest behaviorists

Brown vs. Board
outlawed school segregation, started the whole civil rights movement
Horace Mann
father of the American public school system
Progressive Movement
John Dewey Coined the term
American social movement expected to reform society
What are “low stakes tests?”

Term 2
What are “high stakes tests?”

Term 3
Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for schools?

Definition 1
tests that have no significant consequences

Definition 2
tests that have consequences for students and educators

Definition 3
might determine their continued existence

Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for students?

Concerning “high stakes tests,” what are the consequences for teachers?

Definition 1
might determine promotion between grades or graduation from high school

Definition 2
might be used to measure their performance or to determine their salary increases

Which method of teaching is mandated by NCLB?
Phonic method
Activities of daily living (ADL):
Routine activities that a person does every day such as standing, sitting, eating, bathing, and grooming can be done by the individual or care provider.
Adaptive skills:
These skills are typically needed to live and work in the community: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, leisure, health and safety, self-direction, functional academics, community use and work.
Assistive or Adaptive Technology:
equipment that promotes capability in handling a wider range of activities with greater independence than would otherwise be possible for students with disabilities. Examples would be large print displays on computer screens
Community-Based Instruction (CBI)
Community-Based Instruction (CBI) – a model for delivery of instruction in which IEP goals are met in a “natural”, age-appropriate setting. For example, math, sequencing, travel, and social skills may all be developed in the setting of a trip to the grocery store.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-): Used mainly in clinical settings, this guide provides a classification and description of mental disorders and symptoms, and is cited in many disability studies.
Used mainly in clinical settings, this guide provides a classification and description of mental disorders and symptoms, and is cited in many disability studies.
The broadest definition of disability can be found in Americans With Disabilities Act: a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment.
Functional Curriculum
An approach which delivers instructional content that focuses on the concepts and skills needed by all students with disabilities in the areas of personal-social, daily living, and occupation.or a curriculum focused on practical life skills and usually taught in community based settings with concrete materials that are a regular part of everyday life.