CLAP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)
A highly developed level of proficiency that allows a person to use abstract, decontextualized, language completely and confidently to perform challenging academic work.
Comprehensible Input
This terms refers to the meaningful context-supported language that is clearly understood by the learner.Language that is acquired through comprehended messages.
ELL (English Language Learner)
The preferred term for ESL
graphophonics
The linguist term for referring to the system of sound-letter relationships in a language.
Home Language Survey
A survey conducted (only once) in English and the native language to determine the language normally used in the home and the language used by the student.
LEP (Limited English Proficient)
The term usually used in education for students whose English skills are insufficient for them to succeed in the regualar curriculum. This classification is based on a home language a combination of criteria including a home language survey, language dominance test scores and English achievement scores.
LPAC (Language Proficiency Assessment Committee)
a committee required by Texas Law, which is responsible for making determinations of limited English proficient students’ language proficiency, program placement and assessment.
Morpheme
Smallest unit of language that has meaning (e.g. ly, re )
Non-LEP
A student whose English language skills are proficient and has met exit criteria.
Phoneme
The smallest unit of language that serves to distinguish one utterance from another. When represented in writing a phoneme is placed between forward slashes (e.g./b/)
Pragmatic
The linguistic term for knowledge of how to use language appropriately in a range of informal and formal settings.
Semantic
The linguistic term for the meaning of words or groups of words used together.
Syntax
The linguistic term for the structure of sentences and how words can legitimately be put together in a sentence commonly through of as grammar.
Constructivism
This philosophy is a child-centered view of learning where the child constructs new knowledge based upon the negotiation of prior knowledge and constructed from experience.
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills)
Social language that is necessary for basic everyday communication. Also known as conversational language.
Affective Filter
Process whereby a person learns to adapt to new surroundings through low anxiety and emotional support to incorporate social and cultural ideas and traditions and become part of the new culture without losing his/her own sense of self worth as he/she gains new social and cultural ideas and traditions.
Cloze Reading
A test or exercise of reading comprehension in which the student is asked to supply words systemically removed from the test.
ESL (English as a Second Language
An educational approach in which limited English proficient students are instructed in the use of the English Language. The instruction is based on a special curriculum that typically involves little or no use of the native language and is usually taught during specific school periods.
Fishbone Graph
A flow chart or diagram much like the frame work for diagramming sentences in English grammar.
Formal Schooling
New arrivals who have been in the U.S. for less than five years and are very well educated in their native language.
Genre
A distinctive category of literary composition such as a novel, short story, poem, play.
Cornell Notes
A note-taking and study system developed by Cornell University and is a systematic way of recording notes with an effective method of processing information for learning and recall.
Immersion
A general term for teaching approaches for limited-English proficient students that do not involve using a student’s native language.
Jigsaw
A text reading technique designed as a cooperative learning activity for all students. A ‘group’ is assigned to read a section of the text. As a group, the students read the section; then discuss what was read, determining essential information and key vocabulary. The group reports their findings to the rest of the class.
L1
The first language that a person acquires, also the mother tongue, primary, or native language.
L2
The second language that a person acquires.
Metacognitive objectives
Objectives that imply awareness, reflection, and interaction and are used in strategies that are integrated, interrelated, and recursive in manner.
RAFT Essay
A writing strategy for increasing student understanding of reading materials especially in the content areas: Role, Audience, Format, Topic
Realia
Real-life objects that enable student ot make connections to their own lives. For example, a bank deposit slip and a check register for a unit on banking.
RPTE
Reading Proficiency Test in English.
Schema
A diagrammatic outline or representation; a person’s understanding/perception of the world. (plural–schemata)
TAKS
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
TEKS
Texas Essential knowledge and skills
TPR
Total physical response-a language learning approach based on the relationship between language and its physical representation or execution.
Sheltered Instruction
ELL participate in content courses with grade-level objective delivered through modified instruction that makes the information comprehensible to students
Content objectives
Statements that identify what students should know and be able to do in particular.
Language Objective
Statements that identify what students should know and able to do while using English. They support students’ vocab, functional language, questioning, articulating predictions or hypotheses, reading, writing and so forth.
Content Based ESL Instruction
An instructional approach in which content topics are used as the vehicle for second language learning. A system of instruction in which teachers use a variety of instructional techniques as a way of developing second language, content, cognitive skills, and study skills often delivered through thematic units.
Academic Language
Language used in formal contexts for academic subjects. The aspect of language connected with literacy and academic achievement.
Scaffolding Instruction
A strategy used to provide contextual support for meaning during instruction, such as the use of visual, graphic organizers, modeling or questioning. These supports can be withdrawn as learners are able to demonstrate competencies.
Inter-rater Reliability
Measures of the degree of agreement between two different raters on separate ratings of one assessment indicator using the same scale and criteria.
Prior Knowledge
Knowledge which the readers has prior to engaging in the lesson or reading. Sometimes referred to as schema. It is important to activate prior knowledge before the lesson or reading. This allows students to connect what they are learning/reading with what they already know.
Meta cognition
Learning to learn; thinking about the learning process.
Differentiated Instruction
A flexible approach to teaching in which the teachers plans and carries out a varied approach to content, process, and product in anticipation of and in response to student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Chunking
Putting words together into meaning phrases.
Cloze
A reading comprehension or listening technique that eliminates every nth word (usually the 10th word) in a passage to test mastery of comprehension of written or spoken language students fill in the blanks with the appropriate word.
Discourse
Linguistic term referring to language longer than single sentences e.g. conversations or various written genres.
Minimal Pair
A pair of words which differ in only one phoneme, or sound ( g.g. hit/heat or lice/rice)
Morphology
The study of how words change and word parts.
Phonology
The study of the sound system of any language.
Morphology
The study of how words change and word parts.
Silent period
The period of time that language learner is silent. The period may last up to several months